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Local Government in Bangladesh

Local Government in Bangladesh
Pranab Kumar Panday

Introduction
Bangladesh has repeatedly experimented with decentralisation in the post-colonial and post-independence period. Every successive regime between 1957 and 2001 attempted to reform the local government structure. The induction of local government, however, failed to ensure access and participation to the poor. The absence of tangible rewards for participating in local affairs often resulted in apathy and frustration to the villagers.

The main concern of this essay is to evaluate the process of decentralisation that took place under different regime in Bangladesh and analyse to what extent decentralisation has been ensured.

The Problem
Local government is part of overall governance. Local government institutions, being nearer to people, can involve them in various ways:

(a) planning and implementation of projects
(b) supervision of educational institutions, hospitals and other government financed units
(c) mobilisation of support for new initiatives like campaign against dowry, child labour etc.
(d) enforcement of laws regarding gender discrimination, violence against women, environment protection
(e) mobilisation of resources in the form of taxes, fees, tolls etc. Popular participation also assumes importance because of its potential for holding the local government institution accountable to the community.

On the other hand, local government institutions can enforce accountability of the central/national government authorities. The more aware, vigilant and active the community becomes through its participation in local government bodies, the greater is the pressure on both local government institutions and the government authorities to become transparent and responsive (Z. R. Khan: 1999).

The potential of local government institutions can be realised more effectively where there is decentralisation and devolution of power. Accountability, transparency, participation, empowerment, equity and all other attributes of good governance can become a part of the daily work of both the government and local bodies when decentralisation and devolution take place. Without decentralisation and devolution, local government bodies remain paper organisations without any effective role. It is no exaggeration to say that it is in a decentralised local government system that most

of the attributes of good governance have a chance to survive and prosper. Strengthening of local government institutions can, therefore, be seen as a positive trend towards good governance.

All successive governments in Bangladesh felt the need to have viable local government for ensuring effective governance. As a result, we have seen ‘decentralisation’ as an important policy agenda of all governments. The repetitive process of local government reform has been handed down to Bangladesh from Pakistan as a post-colonial extension. However, the necessity to reform the existing structure of local government by various successive governments in Bangladesh indicates their failure to create effective institutions for enhancing local democracy and delivering development programmes.

In order to analyse the process of decentralisation in Bangladesh and its justifiability, the following questions need to be addressed:

1) To what extent have the governments of Bangladesh been successful in ensuring decentralised local government?
2) What are the major issues associated with the decentralisation of local government in Bangladesh?

Local Government
In some countries, the local extensions of the central government, and in others, traditional local power structures utilised for supporting field administration, have been misconstrued as being equivalent to local government. At times local government has been mistakenly considered an insignificant segment of the government. However, in industrialised countries, the number of civil servants at the local level is much larger than is commonly believed. In the United States, for example, there are four times as many local government employees as federal employees; even in a developing country, like India, the number of local level employees is as high as 40 percent that of federal employees (Siddique, 1994: 2).

With a view to avoiding confusion, it is better to differentiate ‘local government’ from ‘local politics’ and ‘local administration’. Local politics is a wider term and covers a host of areas besides local government. On the other hand, local administration means implementation of decisions by not only local government institutions but also national/ provincial government units operating at the field level. In South Asia, local government is widely known as local self-government1.

For the purpose of this essay, local government is defined essentially in terms of some attributes: first, its statutory status; second, its power to raise finance by taxation in the area under its jurisdiction; third, participation of the local community in decision making on specified subjects and administration; fourth, the freedom to act independent of central control; and lastly, its general function, in contrast to the single-purpose character of many autonomous bodies.
Constitutional and Legal Basis of Local Government
In any democratic polity, local government is given legal recognition either by an act of Parliament or by incorporation of relevant provisions in the Constitution (Khan,

1996: 1). Bangladesh’s Constitution of 1972 clearly spelt out the legal basis and responsibilities of local government. Article 59, Chapter III of the Constitution states that, ‘Local government in every administrative unit of the Republic shall be entrusted to bodies composed of persons elected in accordance with law’. Article 60 of the Constitution states ‘for the purpose of giving full effect to the provision of article fifty nine, Parliament shall, by law, confer powers on the local government bodies referred to in that article including power to impose taxes for local purposes, to prepare their budgets and to maintain funds (Constitution of People’s Republic of Bangladesh, as modified up to 30th of November, 1998).

It is necessary to mention the constitutional and legal basis of the local government of Bangladesh because if the duties and responsibilities of the local government institutions are not demarcated by the Constitution or by the act of the parliament, or if there is no scope for the government to decentralise powers to elected local bodies, it is difficult to devolve powers. It is evident that the legal basis of the local government is clearly spelt out in the Constitution and the Constitution through Article 59, Chap III has ensured the devolution of power to local government bodies.

Brief Background
The institution of Local Government (LG) in Bangladesh goes back a long way. The origin of the existing local government institution can be traced back to the demand for self-government in British India. Initially local government was developed by the British to maintain law and order in the rural areas with the help of local elite backed by local police (Ali, 2001). The local elites were to be nominated in the local government institutions from among those who were trusted by the colonial authority. The British rulers institutionalised this system to perpetuate their political, economic and administrative ends and colonial extortion (Ali, 2001). In 1870, they introduced ‘Choukidary Panchayet’2 as the local government institution. This system was later changed and renamed in different regimes from the British period to present Bangladesh as three-tier Union Committee (1885), two-tier Union Board (1919), four-tier Union Council (1959), and Union Parishad (1973) (Shafi, et.al, 2001: 3). After 1973, Union Parishad became the lowest unit of local government in Bangladesh.

There are two distinct kinds of local government institution in Bangladesh – one for the rural areas and another for urban areas. The local government in the rural areas represents a hierarchical system comprising four tiers: Gram Sarkar, Union Parishad, Upazilla Parishad and Zilla Parishad while the urban local government consists of Pourashavas and Municipal Corporation (Alam, 1984: 48). The following figure shows the existing local government structure in Bangladesh:

Figure-1 (Existing Structure of Local Government in Bangladesh3)
 

Decentralisation in Bangladesh
British period
Decentralisation in Bangladesh began even before the country’s liberation in 1971. The British colonial administration established local governments through the Local Self-Government Act of 1885 to maximise land revenue collection and maintain law and order. Local officials during this period came from the local elite. But the process of decentralisation during British rule was obscure. The British were not interested in any degree of devolution. What appears from the real practice of local bodies is a picture of oppression and exploitation. There has not been any positive result for rural people apart from the fact that these experiments served the colonial interests of the empire. Although India was the first colony to become the experimental ground for such policies of decentralisation, the British reluctance to implement any real degree of decentralisation is also evident. One example of such reluctance is when the empire rejected the report of the Decentralisation Commission in 1907 which recommended an elected Panchayat (Tinker, 1967: 87).

Pakistan period
Reforms regarding local governance were also introduced during the Pakistan period. A new system of local government, known as the system of Basic Democracies, was introduced in the late 1950s. According to Zarina Rahman Khan of the University of Dhaka, ‘General Ayub Khan devised a decentralisation policy for rural development under the banner of the Basic Democracies System, which offered a four-tier government reflecting a mix of deconcentration and devolution.’ Rahman and Khan (1997:8) also added that the system of Basic Democracies was designed as a blend of democratic and bureaucratic values. It was, in other words, between ‘devolution’ and ‘deconcentration’ having nothing in common with the ‘principles’ and ‘characteristics’ of a democratic decentralised system. Though explicitly propagated as a programme of decentralisation, the system actually helped the military regime of General Ayub Khan in extending the stronghold of bureaucracy to the local level.

Bangladesh period
As a result of the long history of struggle for freedom and democracy, Bangladesh saw the importance of developing a sound democracy and increasing people’s participation in the political process, decision-making, and development of the country after it emerged as an independent nation. Though slow in progress, reforms to strengthen local governance and expand democracy were made. Decentralisation was viewed as a strategy that would allow democratic governance and encourage people’s participation. It was also a response to the challenge of reducing poverty. ‘The Constitution…gives enough opportunity to the lawmakers to develop viable self-governing local government institutions. However, as far as the implementation of the objective is concerned, the achievement is far from satisfactory.’ (Mujeri and Singh)

The following are the various decentralisation strategies and developments in the local government system after 1971:

The Mujib Period (1972 to 1975)
After the independence in 1971, the Awami League government, headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, brought the following reforms in the local government.

1) The system of basic democracies was abolished and government bodies carried over from the days prior to independence were dissolved.
2) Public officials were authorised to form committees at different tiers of government to fill the void created by the termination of some government bodies. The committees created would, for the interim, perform local functions.
3) District governorship was introduced in 1973. This provided for a three-tier system with a directly elected Union Parishad (Council), a Thana development committee under the control of the sub-divisional officer, and Zila Parishad under the control of deputy commissioner. (An almost replica of Ayub Khan’s Basic Democracies – Ed.)
4) Union councils were elected but were not able to function effectively due to the coup in 1975.

Mujib paid more attention to national than local issues. Although the Union Parishad (Council) was designed as a decentralised body of local government and the election in 1973 was to ensure grassroot democracy, the Awami League did not hold elections to the higher level councils, nor did it take any measures to devolve authority to any of them. There was a substantial lack of political and behavioural support among Awami League leaders for democratizing the system of governance. It was manifested when Sheikh Mujib abolished the parliamentary system altogether, introduced presidential rule under one-party rule known as BAKSAL, along with the ‘governor system’ introduced at the district level ( Rahman and Khan, 1997:8).

Under General Ziaur Rahman (1975 to 1981)
In August 1975, Major General Ziaur Rahman seized all power as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. Nevertheless, Gen. Zia played a critical role in reviving the local government institutions in the country. The Local Government Ordinance 1976, promulgated by Zia, created Gram Sbaha (village councils) in an attempt to decentralize government down to the village level. In 1980, two years after General Zia became the elected president, all the Gram Sbahas were transformed into Gram

Sarkar (village government) in each of the 68000 villages of Bangladesh. The Gram Sarkar was a body consisting of gram pradhan (village executive) and 11 elected members representing different classes of the village. The Gram Sarkar was a mini-government which could undertake planning and promotional programmes (Chowdhury, 1987:20).

The reforms initiated by Gen. Zia were different from the earlier policies of decentralisation. The bureaucracy was given a free hand to control the local councils once again. These bodies of local government remained as the deconcentrated form of decentralisation. The only exceptions were the Union Parishads and Gram Sarkars. The Gram Sarkar had many characteristics common to those of Mawhood model of decentralisation. Although for the first time in Bangladesh, the Gram Sarkar provided for an equality of representation to various functional interests, many argue that implicit objectives of the reform package of decentralization during Zia’s period was to gain direct political support for the military regime in its process of civilianisation (Hossain, 1989).

Lieutenant General Ershad (1982 to 1990)
After Gen. Zia was assassinated by a military coup d’etat in 1981, the Gram Sarkar was abolished by the new military regime of Ershad, which seized power in March 1982. In his first year of office, Ershad initiated the reform measurers to decentralise the administration through the abolition of former subdivisions and upgraded the Thanas into Upazillas (sub-district). In hundreds of public meetings in the beginning of reform, Ershad and his associates of the Upazilla model pronounced that improving access and promoting participation were the primary goals of their reform. In contravention of this pledge to the nation, the military regime exploited every possible opportunity to weaken the democratic forces in the country and strengthened the autocratic bureaucracy. The political history of Bangladesh was repeated in the 1980s as the Upazilla was politicised in favour of the ruling military regime the way Pakistan’s dictator Ayub Khan used the system of Basic Democracies in the 1960s, and the Gram Sarkar of the 1970s (Rahman and Khan, 1997:9).

Under Khaleda Zia’s Five-Year Rule (1991 to 1996)
It took Prime Minister Khaleda Zia only a few months after she came to power to abolish the Upazilla Parishad and reinstate the previous bureaucracy-dominated thana administration by promulgating the Local Government (Upazilla Parishad and Upazilla Administration Reorganization) (Repeal) Ordinance, 1991. In June 1992, a cabinet division resolution was passed to replace the Upazilla Parishad with Thana administration (GOB, 1992). Khaleda Zia’s decision to depoliticise the Upazilla system was also due to the fact that her party Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) had only a handful of chairmen in the Upazilla of the country. Since BNP had not taken part in the first Upazilla election in 1985. In the second Upazilla election in 1990, BNP was placed at the 5th position getting only 24 Upazilla (out of 460) under its control (Mukta Barta, 31 March 1990). However, the abolition of the Upazilla is seen as a victory of the bureaucrats whose plan during this crucial period was to exploit the changed political situation to their own benefit. Ironically, the democratically elected government of Khaleda Zia indulged in anti-democratic practices with regard to decentralisation.

Begum Khaleda Zia, who failed to provide any new form of local government during her five-year rule, is criticised for the persistent crisis in governance. The local government institutions have become weak. The NGO’s effective intervention rendered the local government institutions purposeless since they failed to perform. The rural people apparently getting more resources from the foreign funded NGOs seemed to have distanced themselves from local government (Rahman and Khan, 1997:9).

Sheikh Hasina’s Period (1996 to 2001)
When the Bangladesh Awami League came to power in 1996, it constituted a Local Government Commission and came up with a Report on Local Government Institutions Strengthening in May 1997. The Commission had recommended a four-tier local government structure including Gram/Palli (Village) Parishad, Union Parishad, Thana/Upazilla Parishad and Zila (District) Parishad. While local government bodies’ exercised some degree of local autonomy, the central Government or a higher body in the administrative hierarchy of the state closely supervised them. Westergaard (2000) observes that, ‘like the previous local government systems, the local bodies are controlled by the central government in all aspects.’ Mujeri and Singh, in their study on the impact of decentralisation in Bangladesh, describe the patron-client relationship existing between the national and local governments. According to them, ‘the territorial jurisdiction, functions and revenue/expenditure patterns of different tiers of the local government are determined by central legislation and their activities are guided and supervised largely by departments/agencies of the central government.’

The present government (since 2001)
The present government, after assuming power in 2001, initiated a change in the local government structure. Gram Sarkar in place of Gram Parishad has been introduced. There has been recent legislation creating Gram Sarkars. These bodies will be created at the Ward levels. Each Gram Sarkar will represent one or two villages comprising about 3,000 people at an average. The UP member elected from the Ward will be the Chairman of the GS, which will have other members — both males and female — elected in a general meeting of the voters of the Ward under the supervision of a ‘prescribed/ directing authority’. There are defined functions of the Gram Sarkar (GS) and other functions may be assigned to it as may be specified by the government from time to time. Gram Sarkars will have the right to constitute issue-based standing committees as and when required, and determine the membership of such committees. The way the Gram Sarkar Act has been passed and its members selected in each ward, has been criticised by every section of society. It is obvious that this has been done for strengthening the power base of ruling Bangladesh Nationalist Party in the rural areas.

Major Issues
The local government bodies had never been, in independent Bangladesh, ‘self-governing’ bodies in the true sense of the term. They could simply be labelled as an extension of the central government with guided and limited local participation. Consequently, local governments have always been institutionally and financially weak, poorly managed and lacked social and political credibility. The importance and

significance of earlier reform efforts with regard to local government lie in their contribution towards some incremental strengthening of the system. However, there is a consensus that the following issues should be taken into consideration in any future attempt to reform the local government institutions and reorganise them to make them truly decentralised, institutionally effective, financially viable, participatory, gender sensitive, transparent and accountable.

Role and functions
Traditionally, Local Government (LG) in Bangladesh has limited jurisdiction over specific (and limited) developmental functions. The area of regulatory administration has always been kept aside from the purview of the role and functions of these bodies (Hussain and Sarker et al, 1994). Most of the developmental functions for which LG units are made responsible under the legal framework, such as: family welfare, education, public health, social welfare, etc., are administered by different agencies of the national government. For example the UP4 has no authority other than reviewing and reporting to the Upazilla Nirbahi Officer (UNO), a national government functionary. UPs virtually have no scope to get involved in the implementation of development projects initiated by these agencies at the local level. The exact relationship between the field level units of various government departments and the LG is vaguely defined.

Local level infrastructure development is one of the important functions of the LG. These projects are generally implemented through food aid and grants received from the national government. Food aids are channeled thorough different agencies of the national government. In this area, for example the role of UP as a Local Government (LG) unit is again limited to the selection of the possible projects only. Such selected projects are finally approved by the UNO in consultation with the Upazilla Engineer (UE) and the Project Implementation Officer (PIO). The above type of scenario clearly suggests that the role and functions of LG units are restricted in the area of development administration. In addition the other functions of the LG units are again subjected to bureaucratic supervision and guidance (Khan, 2000).

Centre-local government relations
In the context of the LG, central-local government relations have always been an issue. In Bangladesh, statutorily, the central-local relationship has been authoritative in nature. This may be due to the colonial legacy and the absence of democratic government at the centre for a considerable period of time. The central or the national government primarily exercises its control over the LG bodies through its field level government functionaries such as the Deputy Commissioner (DC) and the UNO, heads of district and Upazila administration respectively. In addition, LG units are further controlled through a web of intricate and complicated orders and circulars from different agencies/ministries which very often contradict the original legal framework. Under law, the national government is also empowered to carry out inquiries into the affairs of local government institutions. And after such inquiry, if the government considers that a LG unit is ‘unable’ to discharge its duties; or ‘fails’ to meet its financial obligations; or otherwise exceeds or abuses its power, then the government may suspend such a local government unit for a period as may be specified by the law. This provision allows the district administration to axe an LG

unit such as the UP at any time and consequently, make them extremely vulnerable to the political and administrative whims of the government.

In addition, the central government also exercises substantial financial and administrative control over the local government institutions in different ways. The annual budgets of the LG units are scrutinised and approved by different levels of central government agencies. Again, in the case of UP authority over the appointment and payment of salaries of the staff is held by central government bureaucracy. In the internal functioning of LG, the national government functionaries also exercise control over them. For example, the Local Government Ordinance requires a UP to constitute a number of standing committees and for the formation of any additional committee it needs the formal approval of the DC. The above facts reveal that the LG units in Bangladesh are being constantly controlled by the national government through various mechanisms for almost every aspect of their operation and functioning. Such practices, in reality, have turned the local government institutions in Bangladesh into mere extension of the national government and of their various agencies.

Resource mobilisation
Local government bodies have been chronically resource poor in Bangladesh. The LG regulations empowered them to mobilise resources from local sources through assessment and levy of taxes, leasing of local Hats5 and Bazaars6, water bodies, etc. But they do not receive the total resources generated from their entitled sources. For example, in the case of UPs, of the revenue generated from the leasing of the rural market, 25 per cent is retained by national government, 10 per cent by the Upazilla, and 15 per cent is earmarked for the maintenance of the market, and the rest 50 per cent is the entitlement of the UP. Another feature of financial control is that the UNO receives funds transferred from UP mobilised resources like share of land transfer tax, market lease money for retention in the accounts maintained by him for later distribution to UPs on basis of prescribed government guidelines. This shows that the UPs have no direct control even over resources generated from their jurisdictions. Such practice of regulating and controlling of the financial resources by the national government functionaries keeps the LG units ever resource poor and resource dependent on the national government (Khan, 2000).

The local government institutions are entitled to Annual Development Plan (ADP) grants from the national government. The local government regulation holds strict instructions that the block grant must be used specifically in certain sectors determined by the central government. This pre-determined sector allocation seriously limits the scope of local level planning as well as the flexibility of local bodies to utilise the financial resources for satisfying the immediate needs of the community. This also runs contrary to the concept of functional autonomy of the LG units.

Institutional capacity
Institutional capacity includes both human competence and logistics. Relevant studies reveal that the overwhelming majority of the chairmen and members of LG units lack knowledge and understanding of the operational procedures and functions of these bodies (Aminuzzaman, 1998). They are also unaware of the intricate rules with regard

to budgeting, planning, and resource management. Moreover, for example, Union Parishads are required to maintain and preserve more that 100 registers (for general office management, village courts, test relief programs, food-for-work programs etc.). It is a huge task considering the managerial capacity of the LG unit. In effect, very few registers are actually maintained. This is due to the fact that very little effort has been made over the years to impart training in the relevant fields of local institutional operations to the elected officials and salaried staff particularly the Union Parishad secretaries. Moreover, relevant institutions have inadequate facilities and the training modules are also outdated. Most of the LG units have inadequate physical facilities.

Accountability and transparency
Accountability and transparency of operations and functions of the LG units are essential for ensuring their credibility to the electorate. This can only be achieved through adequate supervision and monitoring. Legally the Monitoring & Evaluation Wing of the Local Government Department of the Ministry of Local Government Rural Development and Cooperatives (LGRD&C) is responsible for monitoring the functions of the local bodies. But its monitoring mechanism is weak, inadequate and ineffective. The other mechanism is through the inspection and visits by the field level government functionaries, such as, the UNO and the ADLG. However, their functions are more of control than monitoring. The relevant LG regulations prescribe that UPs are to ensure public display of (in the UP notice board) the budget and major decisions of the UP meetings particularly with regard to development projects. But this practice is almost absent in most Union Parishads.

Conclusion
In Bangladesh there have been six major attempts to reform local government under six different governments. The objective of all, at least at the level of rhetoric, was to introduce participatory and accountable local governance through decentralisation of functions and powers to locally elected institutions. All these governments also recognised the relevance of the role of decentralised local institutions in planning and implementing need-based development projects for poverty alleviation and reduction of socio-economic inequality. However, the objectives were not realised and the governments failed to keep their commitment towards grassroot democracy and to devolve power to the people at lower levels to manage their own affairs. Nevertheless, every successive government of Bangladesh has used the local government bodies to strengthen their own political base in the rural areas, ignoring the principles and importance of decentralisation of power to the local level. Consequently, the primary goal of poverty reduction, economic equity and gender balance remained unfulfilled.

(Pranab Kumar Panday is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Administration, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. He can be reached at: pranabpanday@yahoo.com)

End Notes
1. The term local self-government originated during the colonial times when most of South Asia did not enjoy any self government, either at the central or provincial (state) level. At some point in time, a decision was taken by the British Government to associate South Asians in administering local affairs. It meant a slice of self-government for the people.

Today the term self-government has lost its old significance as all the seven countries of South Asia now enjoy self-government at the national level. However, in the changed context, the justification of the prefix ‘self’ perhaps lies in emphasising the representative character of local government.
2. In the British period, Union Parishad was called as ‘Choukidary Panchayet’.
3. The figure has been drawn by author based on Siddique, 1994: 325 and http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/bangladesh/bangladesh.html#ahead
4. UP stands for Union Parishad.
5. Hats is the Bengali name if big markets which generally sits one or two times in a week in a village.
6. Bazar is the Bengali name of small daily market which are generally seen in the village level in Bangladesh.

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America and Islam: Fulcrum of Understanding

America and Islam: Fulcrum of Understanding
–Professor Abdun Noor

The continued clash between Israelis and Palestinians has become a great obstacle to the dream of peace in the middle east. It is a fact that Palestinian crisis originated out of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. The unequivocal support given to it by the West led by the United States of America and its ongoing ‘war on terror’ especially after the cataclysmic event of 9/11, have given rise to the Muslims throughout the world, a sort of feeling that America is hostile towards Muslims and Islam. The negative portrayal of Islam in the Western media as a fanatic religion and branding the beard faced turban wearing Muslim activists as terrorists, have further accentuated the crisis. This has given rise to some disgruntled Muslim youths to launch terrorist attack on many establishments across the globe. Consequently, it has become a widely discussed topic now-a-days, that the “Clash of Civilization” theory of Samuel P. Huntington has become a reality. Time has, therefore, come for a shift in the discussion about Islam and the West from confrontation to dialogue and from recrimation to understanding.

It is heartening of course, that in such a volatile situation, some Muslim scholars have come forward to focus Islam as a religion which emphasizes toleration, moderation and peace, and misguided Muslim youths have been asked to abandon their aggressive path which is forbidden in its teachings. Even President George W. Bush in a speech has mentioned the Qur’an where it has been stated that “if anyone slays a human being…it shall be as though he had slain all mankind; whereas if anyone saves a life, it shall be as though he had saved the lives of all mankind”(5:32). Besides, a 56 member Ambassadorial Washington Group(AWG) has recently been formed with the intend to interact with members of the U.S. Administration and other relevant institutions on issues pertaining to Islam and the welfare of Muslims. Western intellectuals, on the other, have attempted to identify some common principles and values of both Christianity and Islam which are desperately needed to salvage Western societies from moral degradation. The Common problems that afflict the North American society as illustrated by a Canadian scholar are: “growing drug addiction, teenage pregnancy, spread of incurable sexually transmitted diseases, alcoholism, depression, problem of the aged and the poor, divorce and urban crimes, depletion of natural resources and ecological concern etc.” These are the symptoms of social disintegration in the West which even Huntington considered as a sign of ‘civilization in decline’.
Erosion of family values and social disintegration are such complex issues which cannot be properly treated by secularists or philosophers. It can neither be dealt with by programs in Harvard or other advanced universities. These issues need to be solved by religious teachings of love and respect and mutual responsibility that show the proper relationship between male and female, parents and children. Muslim societies are more or less free from those social maladies mentioned above. Because on all these issues, Islam takes a vocal and enlightened position and if it is properly harnessed and understood, it can provide fresh impetus in combating the universal problems. “In almost every public policy which presents problem in America and world society”, writes the American social scientist Ralph Braibanti, “Islam has had answer…To name a few: protection of the environment; primacy of the family in the social order; solidarity of the community; individual responsibility; concern for the victims of crime; self-restraint; modesty of dress and manner; abstention from addictive drugs, alcohol, tobacco and gambling; equality of all races; a strict judicial process tempered by compassion; and submission to divine will”. “United political action on these social issues”, he further asserts, “united with Christian believers—should now be the great challenge of Islam”. Cardinal Arinze also calls for “joint promotion of moral values, development, justice and peace”. He asserts that an interreligious effort to face the problems of all societies is obligatory.

Another noticeable trend in America is that Islam has become a widely discussed topic in the civil society and has entered the course curricula in many academic institutions. In recent years, Islam has become a fast growing religion and Muslim population comprise more than six million growing rapidly through migration, conversion and high birth rate. Muslim involvement in American life has also been increased. M.J.Khan, a Pakistani origin American Muslim has been elected to the City Council of Huston which is the fourth largest city in the United States. Keith Ellison, an American Muslim from Minnesota, has been elected to the Congress which is a significant step towards political empowerment of the Muslim community. Muslims’ lobbying to educate and influence members of the Congress has also been increased significantly. Both the Democratic and Republican parties are recruiting voters among Muslims. The U.S. Under Secretary of State Karen Hughes acknowledged that “as a major world religion,(Islam) is part of the West and an important part of America”. An invigorated Islamic presence in the United States is manifest in the inclusion of Imams as Chaplains in the armed services and the celebration of the Muslim festival of Eid in the White House. In a meeting with some Muslim groups, Karen Hughes called them to join the U.S.efforts to combat misrepresentation fostered by extremists that there is a ‘clash of civilization’ , and that the West is somehow in conflict with Islam. She also cited US State Departments efforts to promote mutual exchange programs which she called, “civilization dialogue”.

A Program of Joint Action on Social Values
In a speech, Congressman Ellison said that he was elected to the U.S.Congress for his values which derive from Islam. It means that the American society is ready to welcome certain values which Islam can deliver. The concept of adle or“justice” is such a value.. It reminds one of the New Public Administration movement in America during the early seventies of the last century which asked for establishing social justice in the governance process. “Justice is the end of government”, wrote the American Founding Fathers while framing the constitution of independent America more than two hundred years ago. At the present time, the whole Western world including America value democracy as the central feature of their society and politics. Islam on the other, places high emphasis on the concept of adle or justice. Adle is important because it is a divine attribute enshrined in the Qur’an. The Islamic concept of justice goes beyond the Western conception in the sense that the Western theories consider justice as giving everybody his due according to his capacity and contribution. In establishing Adle, besides the distribution of goods and services, Islam put emphasis on Ihsan which means welfare of the disadvantaged in society. That is why, the concept of adle has been tempered with Ihsan in the Holy Qur’an(16:90).Congressman Ellison while underlining Islamic values, mentioned charity, in giving to others in need and facing adversity, equality and justice what the Americans are into. The people who voted Ellison to office are overwhelmingly white and Christians, descendents of Norwegians and Swedish and German immigrants. They voted Ellison because they believe that Ellison can promote and execute and advocate these things.
In the West, a society without democracy is seen as a tyranny. In Islam, a society without justice(and welfare) amounts to tyranny. True Islamic values are not only compatible with democracy, they drive us towards a society in which there is consultation(Shura)where there are inputs and approval from the populace. Unfortunately, most of the states in the contemporary Muslim world, are lacking in democratic process which is mainly responsible for breeding resentments and their sporadic outburst through terrorist activities. In this respect, America may improve its diplomatic efforts to promote democracy in the Muslim world as a preemptive strategy to avoid future terrorist activity. Therefore, it can be said that the only political order that can be legitimate, viable and resilient in the 21st century, will be a democracy strongly based on adle(justice). America and Islam should, therefore, join together in creating a new world order based on democracy and social justice (The writer is a Professor of Public Administration at the University of Chittagong).

Public Administration Last 5 Years Question

wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 201 miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h ‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1) miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡bi msÁvwqZ Ki| cvV¨ welq wnmv‡e miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡bi D™¢e, weKvk I ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 2) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbvi msÁv `vI Ges miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡b Gi ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Ki| ms‡¶‡c gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbvi Dcv`vb¸wj Av‡jvPbv Ki| 3) ‡K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’v ej‡Z wK eySvq? †K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’v wnmv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki ms¯’vcb gš¿bvj‡qi fywgKv mgv‡jvPbvmn Av‡jvPb Ki| 4) evsjv‡`‡k miKvix Lv‡Z wb‡qv‡Mi mxgve×Zvmg~n wPwýZ Ki| G mxgve×Zvmg~‡n DËi‡Yi Rb¨ †Zvgvi mycvwik wK? 5) cÖwk¶b wK? wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖwk¶‡bi eY©bv `vI| gvbe m¤ú` Dbœq‡b cÖwk¶‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 6) c‡`vbœwZ wK? Ô‰RôZvÕ Ges Ô‡gavÕ G `y‡Uv bxwZi g‡a¨ †KvbwU‡K Zzwg evsjv‡`‡ki wmwfj mvwf©‡m c‡`vbœwZi cÖavb wfwË nIqv DwPr| 7) ‡hŠ_ `i KlvKwl msÁvwqZ Ki Ges miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡b Gi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| †hŠ_ `i KlvKwli c×wZmg~n eY©bv Ki| 8) c‡`i †kªYxKiY wK? GKwU msMV‡b c‡`i †kªYxKi‡Yi wewfbœ avc Av‡jvPbv Ki| 9) wkí we‡iva wK? GKwU msMV‡b wkí we‡iva wb®úwËi Rb¨ e¨eüZ c×wZmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| 10) UxKv wjL (†h †Kvb 2wU) t (K) †cÖlbvi wØ-Dcv`vb ZË¡ (L) mvsMVwbK Dbœqb (M) Gg,we,I (N) Kg©-g~j¨vqb Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 201 Public Personnel Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. Define public personnel administration. Discuss evolution, development and importance of public personnel administration as an academic discipline. 2. Define human resource planning and explain its importance in public personnel administration. Briefly discuss the elements of human resource planning. 3. What is meant by central personnel agency? Critically discuss the role of the Ministry of Establishment of Bangladesh as a central personnel agency. 4. Identify the limitations of public sector recruitment in Bangladesh. What are your suggestions to overcome these limitations? 5. What is training? Describe different types of training. Discuss the importance of training in human resource development. 6. What is promotion? Which of two principles- security and merit do you think should provide the principal basis of promotion in the Bangladesh Civil Service? Give reasons for your answer. 7. Define collective bargaining and discuss its importance in public personnel administration. Describe the methods of collective bargaining. 8. What is classification of position? Discuss the various steps in classifying positions in an organization. 9. What is industrial dispute? Discuss the methods of resolving industrial disputes in an organization. 10. Write down short notes on any two of the following: (a) Two major theory of Motivation (b) Organizational development (c) MBO (d) Performance Appraisal wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm ( m¤§vb ) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 202 miKvix A_©cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1. miKvix A_© cÖkvm‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| evsjv‡`‡k miKvix cÖkvm‡bi mxgve×Zvmg~n eY©bv Ki| 2. ivR¯^bxwZi msÁv `vI| GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡k ivR¯^bxwZi Kvg¨ f~wgKv wK nIqv DwPZ? Av‡jvPbv Ki| 3. evsjv‡`‡k Ki KvVv‡gvi cÖavb ˆewkó¨mg~n eY©bv Ki| evsjv‡`‡k cÖZ¨¶ K‡ii Ae`vb GZ Kg †Kb? Ki duvwK wKfv‡e †iva Kiv hvq? 4. ‡`‡ki gy`ªv e¨e¯’vi AwffveK wnmv‡e evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡Ki f~wgKv we‡k­lb Ki| 5. evsjv‡`‡ki ev‡RU cÖwµqv Av‡jvPbv Ki| evsjv‡`‡k ev‡RU cÖYq‡b RbM‡Yi Kvh©Ki AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ Zywg wK wK mycvwik Ki? 6. evsjv‡`‡k miKvix A_©cÖkvm‡bi Dci msm`xq wbqš¿‡bi cwiwa I mxgve×Zvmg~n g~j¨vqb Ki| 7. evsjv‡`‡k A_©gš¿bvj‡qi MVb I Kvh©vejx Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_©gš¿bvjq I cwiKíbv gš¿bvj‡qi g‡a¨ m¤úK© eY©bv Ki| 8. cj­x Dbœqb I `wi`ª `~ixKi‡Yi g‡Wj wnmv‡e MÖvgxb e¨vs‡Ki f~wgKv g~j¨vqb Ki| 9. evsjv‡`‡ki b¨vq Dbœqbkxj †`‡k Avw_©K bxwZ cÖYq‡b Avš—RvwZ©K Avw_©K cÖwZôvbmg~n wKfv‡e cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i? G cÖfve KZUzKz ¶wZKi? 10. bx‡Pi †h †Kvb wZbwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) ‡jvKcÖkvmb I miKvix A_©e¨e¯’vi Kvh©¨ m¤úK© (L) evwYwR¨K e¨vsK (M) mgvbycvwZK I cÖMwZkxj Ki (N) cÖ¯—vweZ evsjv‡`k Dbœqb e¨vsK (O) miKvix FY (P) g~j¨ ms‡hvRb Ki| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 202 Public Financial Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. Discuss the importance of public financial administration. State the limitations of public financial administration in Bangladesh. 2. Define ‘fiscal policy’. What should lie the optimum role of fiscal policy in a developing country? Discuss. 3. Describe the main features of tax structure in Bangladesh. Why does the contribution of direct tax remain very low in Bangladesh? How can tax avoidance be cheeked? 4. Analyze the role of Bangladesh Bank of the gradient of currency system in the country. 5. Discuss the process of budget-making in Bangladesh. What measures do you suggest to ensure effective peoples participation in budget-making process in Bangladesh. 6. Evaluate the scope and limits of parliamentary control on public financial administration in Bangladesh.. 7. Discuss the composition and function of Finance Ministry of Bangladesh. State the relationship between Finance Ministry and Planning ministry. 8. Evaluate the role of Grameen Bank as a model of rural development and poverty alleviation. 9. How do international financial institutions influence the making of financial policies in a developing country like Bangladesh? What is this influence countries-prodnetion 10. Write short notes on three of the following: (a) Relation between public administration and public finance; (b) Commercial bank; (c) Proportional Tax’ and ‘Progressive Tax (d) Proposed Bangladesh Development Bank; (e) Public debt; (f) Value added tax. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 203 M‡elYv we`¨v c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1) (K) M‡elYv wK? (L) mvgvwRK M‡elYvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (M) mvgvwRK M‡elYvi wewfbœ avc eY©bv Ki| 2) (K) M‡elYv c×wZ I M‡elYv cÖKv‡ii ga¨Kvi cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (L) wewfbœ cÖKvi mvgvwRK M‡elYv msw¶ß eY©bv `vI| 3) (K) M‡elYvi mv‡_ weÁv‡bi m¤úK© †`LvI| (L) GKwU DËg M‡elYvi ˆewkó¨mg~n wbi“cb I we‡k­lb Ki| 4) (K) M‡elYv bKmv wK? (L) M‡elYv bKmv cÖYq‡b cÖavb we‡eP¨ welq¸wj wK? (M) wbgœwjwLZ †h †Kvb GKwU welq m¤ú‡K© M‡elYv bKmv cÖYq‡bi avcmg~n Av‡jvPbv Kit i. ¯’vbxq miKv‡i bvixi f~wgKv; ii. bxwZ cÖYq‡b Avgjv‡¶‡Îi f~wgKv; iii. mgvR I †jvKcÖkvm‡bi m¤úK©; 5) (K) bgybvq‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) D`vniYmn wewfbœ ai‡Yi m¤¢vebxqZv bgybvqb c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 6) (K) ‡dvKvm MÖ“c Av‡jvPbv ewj‡Z wK eyS? (L) †dvKvm MÖ“c Av‡jvPbv Gi wbqgvejx eY©bv Ki| (M) mvgvwRK M‡elYvq †dvKvm MÖ“c Av‡jvPbvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 7) (K) cÖkœgvjv wK? (L) cÖkœgvjv KZ cÖKvi I wK wK? (M) †Zvgvi cQ›`gZ †h †Kvb M‡elYv mgm¨vi Dci Kgc‡¶ 10wU cÖkœ m¤^wjZ GKwU bgybv cÖkœgvjv wK cÖ¯‘Z Ki| 8) mvgvwRK M‡elYvq DcvË msMÖ‡ni wewfbœ c×wZ I Drmmg~n ms‡¶‡c Av‡jvPbv Ki| 9) GKwU Av`k© M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘‡Zi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Dcv`vbmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| 10) UxKv wjL: (†h †Kvb `yÕwU) (K) Z_¨ I DcvË; (L) cÖvK-Abygvb I w_wmm; (M) ch©‡e¶b; (N) mvwnZ¨ ch©v‡jvPbv| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 203 Research Methodology Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. a) What is research? b) Discuss the importance of social research. c) Describe different steps of social research. 2. a) Differential between research methods and research types. b) Give a brief account of various types of social research. 3. a) Indicate the relationship of research with science. b) Identify and analyses the characteristics of a good research. 4. a) What is research design? b) What are the main issues to be considered in formulating a research design? c) Discuss the steps involved in formulating a research design for any one of the following topics:- a. Role of women in local government; b. Role of bureaucracy in policy making? c. Relations between society and public administration? 5. a) Define sampling. b) Discuss various types of probability (random) sampling method with example. 6. a) What do you mean by Focus Group Discussion? b) Describe the principles of Focus Group Discussion. c) Discuss the importance of focus group discussion in social research. 7. a) What is questionnaire? b) What are different types of questionnaire? c) Prepare a sample questionnaire containing at least in questions an my research problem of your choice. 8. Discuss in brief the methods and source of data collections in social research. 9. Discuss the essential elements required in preparing an ideal research report. 10. Write short notes: (Any Two) a) Information and Data; b) Hypothesis and Thesis; c) Observation; d) Literature Review. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 204 cwimsL¨vb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1) (K) ‡jvKcÖkvmb M‡elYvq cwimsL¨v‡bi ¸i“Z¡ I e¨envi Av‡jvPbv Ki| (L) cwimsL¨vb Z_¨-wPÎq‡bi `yÕwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© wPÎ eY©bv Ki| 2) 50 b¤^‡ii GKwU cix¶vq 50 Rb wk¶v_©xi b¤^i wbgœiƒc t 40 45 41 45 45 30 39 8 48 25 26 9 23 24 26 29 8 40 13 42 39 35 18 25 35 40 42 43 44 36 14 32 28 27 25 26 38 37 36 35 32 28 40 41 43 44 45 40 39 41 (K) GKwU Frequency distribution MVb Ki| (L) Z_¨mg~n‡K ‘histogram’ Ges AwRf †iLviÕ gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb Ki| 3) (K) †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi wewfbœ cwigvc¸‡jvi myweav I Amyweavmg~n Zzjbv Ki| (L) bx‡Pi MYmsL¨v †Uwej †_‡K MvwYwZK Mo, ga¨gv I cÖPziK †ei Ki| mvßvwnK †eZb (Uv:) e¨w³i msL¨v mvßvwnK †eZb (Uv:) e¨w³i msL¨v 200-400 400-600 600-800 800-1000 1000-1200 6 9 11 14 20 1200-1400 1400-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 15 10 8 7 4) (K) GKwU fv‡jv M‡oi wK wK ˆewkó¨ _vKv DwPZ? (L) aiv hvK GKwU GjvKvi †jvK msL¨v 8 erm‡i e„w× †c‡q 10,000 †_‡K 15,000 nj| evwl©K e„w×i nvi KZ? (M) GKwU †kªYx‡Z 60 Rb cyi“l I 40 Rb gwnjv wk¶v_©x Av‡Q| cyi“l wk¶v_©x‡`i Mo IRb 65 †KwR I gwnjv wk¶v_©xi Mo IRb 55 †KwR| mgMÖ ‡kªYxi Mo IRb KZ? 5) (K) `yB ai‡Yi g‡W‡ji †iwd«‡R‡iU‡ii AvqyKvj wbgœiƒc: AvqyKvj (eQi) †iwd«‡R‡iU‡ii msL¨v g‡Wj-A g‡Wj-B 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-12 5 16 13 7 5 4 2 7 12 19 9 1 ‡Kvb g‡WjwUi Mo AvqyKvj †ekx? †Kvb g‡WjwU‡Z AwaKZi mvgÄm¨ (Uniformity) Av‡Q? (L) GKwU †kªYxi †Q‡j I †g‡q‡`i cÖvß gvK©m we‡k­lY K‡i wb‡gœv³ djvdj cvIqv †Mj: ‡Q‡j ‡g‡q msL¨v 50 100 Mo gvK©m 70 65 gvK©‡mi cwiwgZ e¨eavb 8 7 D‡j­wLZ djvdj †_‡K cy‡iv †kªYxi gvK©‡mi cwiwgZ e¨eavb †ei Ki| 6) bx‡Pi Dcv˸‡jv we‡ePbv Ki: gvwmK gybvdv (Uv:) Kv‡h©i msL¨v gvwmK gybvdv (Uv:) Kv‡h©i msL¨v 7.5 †_‡K Kg 7.5-12.5 12.5-17.5 17.5-22.5 4 10 20 36 22.5-27.5 27.5-32.5 32.5-37.5 16 12 2 (K) Arbitrary point mv‡c‡¶ cÖ_g PviwU moment ‡ei Ki| (L) cÖ_g PviwU †K›`ªxq moment ‡ei Ki| (M) ‘Skewness’ ‡ei Ki Ges gš—e¨ Ki| (N) ‘Kurtosis’ ‡ei Ki Ges gš—e¨ Ki| 7) Avq Ges e¨q m¤úwK©Z bx‡Pi Dcv˸‡jv we‡ePbv Ki (mKj AsK UvKvq) : Avq(X) 50 60 70 85 90 100 110 e¨q(X) 40 48 55 62 64 70 75 (K) Avq I e¨‡qi g‡a¨ Coefficient of correlation ‡ei Ki Ges gš—e¨ Ki| (L) Avq I e¨‡qi g‡a¨ Coefficient of determination ‡ei Ki| (M) Avq 120 UvKv n‡j e¨q KZ UvKv n‡e? 8) (K) †`Iqv Av‡Q, cY¨ 2004 2005 Po qo P1 q1 A B C 3 4 4 9 12 14 5 6 5 7 6 10 ÔwdkviÕ Ges ÔgvkvjÕ-GRIqv_© Gi Price index ‡ei Ki| (L) †`Iqv Av‡Q, Lv`¨ evmv fvov ‡cvkvK R¡vjvbx wewea kZKiv e¨q 35 15 20 10 20 g~j¨ (UvKv): wcwiqW 0 1500 500 1000 200 600 g~j¨ (UvKv): wcwiqW 1 1740 600 1250 250 900 9) (K) Kvjxb mvwi we‡k­lb wK? Kvwjb Mvwoi cwigvc mg~n wK wK? (L) c&ª`Ë DcvË n‡Z AvavMo ‡ei K‡i cªebZvi MwZgvb wbY©q Kit ermi Drcv`b(nvRvi Ub) ermi Drcv`b(nvRvi Ub)) 1997 42 2003 56 1998 48 2004 61 1999 57 2005 59 2000 52 2006 56 2001 58 2007 65 2002 59 2008 63 10) UxKv wjLt (K) Correlation ebvg regression (L) Factor Reversal Test (M) Pie-Diagram (N) we¯—vi | Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 204 Statistics Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. a) Discuss the importance and use of statistics in public Administration research. b) Describe two important diagrams for graphical representation of statistical data. 2. The scores of 50 students in a examination of 50 marks are as follows: 40 45 41 45 45 30 39 8 48 25 26 9 23 24 26 29 8 40 13 42 39 35 18 25 35 40 42 43 44 36 14 32 28 27 25 26 38 37 36 35 32 28 40 41 43 44 45 40 39 41 a) Form a frequency distribution. b) Present the information in a histogram and ogive curve. 3. a) Compare the merits and demerits of various measures of central tendency. b) From the following frequency table calculate mean median and mode. Weekly rent (Tk.) No. of persons Weekly rent (Tk.) No. of persons 200-400 400-600 600-800 800-1000 1000-1200 6 9 11 14 20 1200-1400 1400-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 15 10 8 7 4. a) What characteristics should a good average have? b) Suppose the population of a area has incressed from 10,000 to 15,000 in 8 years. What is the growth rate? c) A class has 60 male and 40 female students. The average weight of male students is 65 kg while the average weight of female students is 55 kg. What is the average weight of entire class 5. a) Lives of two models refrigerators are as follows: Life No. of refrigerators No. of Years Model 1 Model 2 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-12 5 16 13 7 5 4 2 7 12 19 9 1 Which model has greates average life times? Which model has greates uniformity? b) From an analysis of marks of boys and girls in a class, the following results were obtained : Boys Girls Number 50 100 Average marks 70 65 Standard deviation 8 7 of marks Obtain the standard deviation of marks of entire class. 6. Consider the following data : Monthly profits (Tk.) No. of firms Monthly profits (Tk.) No. of firms less than 7.5 7.5-12.5 12.5-17.5 17.5-22.5 4 10 20 36 22.5-27.5 27.5-32.5 32.5-37.5 16 12 2 a) Find first four moments about arbitrary point. b) Find first four central moments. c) Find ‘skewness’ and comment. Find ‘kurtosis’ and comment. 7. The Data on income and expenditure are as follows (all in Tk.) : Income (X) 50 60 70 85 90 100 110 Expenditure (Y) 40 48 55 62 64 74 75 a) Find coefficient of correlation between income and expenditure and comment. b) Find coefficient of determination between income and expenditure. c) What will be the expenditure if income is 120 Tk. 8. (a) Given 2004 2005 Commodity Po qo P1 q1 A 3 9 5 7 B 4 12 6 6 C 4 14 5 10 Find Fisher’s and Marshall Edgeworth price index (b) Given Food Rent Clothing Fud Misc Present expenditure 35 15 20 10 20 Price (Tk.) in Period 0 1500 500 1000 200 600 Price (Tk.) in Period 1 1740 600 1250 250 900 Construct consumer price index. 9. a) What is time series? Give a brief description of its main measures. b) Apply the method of average of measuring trend from the following data: Year Production (m’000 tons) Year Production (m’000 tons) 1997 42 2003 56 1998 48 2004 61 1999 57 2005 59 2000 52 2006 56 2001 58 2007 65 2002 59 2008 63 10. Write short notes: a) Correlation Vs Regression b) Factor Reversal Test c) Pie Diagram d) Dispersion. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 205 ivóªwPš—v c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1. ivóªwPš—v ej‡Z wK eyS? ivóªwPš—v Aa¨q‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki? 2. ‡c­‡Uvi mvg¨ev` eb©bv Ki| ‡c­‡Uvi mvg¨ev` I AvaywbK mvg¨ev‡`i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 3. GwióªU‡ji g‡Z wec­‡ei Kvibmgyn wK? wec­e `g‡b Zvi wb‡`©wkZ Dcvqmgyn eb©bv Ki| 4. †mB›U _gvm GKzBbv‡gi AvBb ZË¡wU Av‡jvPbv Ki| 5. Bgv‡gi (ivóª cÖavb) †hvM¨Zv, wbe©vPb I `vwqZ¡ m¤ú‡K© Bgvg Mv¾vjxi (in:) gZvgZ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 6. ‰bwZKZv I ag© m¤ú‡©K †gwKqv‡fjxi `„wóf½x e¨vL¨vmn eb©bv Ki| 7. mgv‡jvPbv mnKv‡i nem I j‡Ki mvgvwRK Pzw³ gZev` Av‡jvPbv Ki| 8. ivóªweÁv‡b i“‡kvi Ae`vb g~j¨vqb Ki| 9. Óga¨hyM wQj MxR©v I iv‡óªi ga¨Kvi ؇Üi hyM|Ó Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| 10. ‡h †Kvb `ywUi Dci UxKv wjLt K) †mB›U AMvwó‡bi ivóªwPš—v L) †R, Gm, wg‡ji ¯^vwabZv M) Dc‡hvMev` N) D×„Ë g~j¨ZË¡ Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 205 Political Thought Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. What is meant by political thought? Discuss the significance of the study of political thought. 2. State Plato’s communism. Discuss the difference between Plato’s communism and modern communism. 3. What are the cause of revolution according by Aristotle? State the means suggested by him present revolution. 4. Discuss the theory of low formulation by Saint Thomas Aquinas. 5. Discuss the views of Al Gazzali regarding the qualification selection on responsibilities of Imam (Head of State). 6. State and explain Machiavelli’s attitude towards morality and religion. 7. Critically discuss the social contract theory given by Hobbes and Locke. 8. allocate the contribution of Rousseau to political Thought. 9. “Madiral period was the era of conflict between the church and the state” explain the statement. 10. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) Political thought of Saint Augustine (b) J.S. Mill’s Liberty (c) Utilitarianism (d) Theory of surplus value. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 206 mvgwóK A_©bxwZ c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb 5 wU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) mvgwóK A_©bxwZi welqe¯‘ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (L) wR.wW.wc I wR.Gb.wc Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK? (M) cÖK…Z wR.wW.wc I bvgK wR.wW.wc Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK? (N) Ò‰ØZ MYbvi mgm¨vÓ wK? Bnv wKfv‡e mgvavb Kiv hvq? 2| (K) GKwU mij Kxbmxq g‡W‡j RvZxq Avq wba©vib †`LvI| (L) gy`ªvùxwZ duvK I g›`v duvK ej‡Z wK eyS? G mgm¨v¸‡jv wKfv‡e mgvavb Kiv hvq? (M) †`Iqv Av‡P, C = 100 + 0.9 yd I = 70 TR = 100 G = 200 t = 0.25 fvimvg¨ RvZxq Avq¯—i, ¸YK Gi ev‡R‡U DØ„Ë wbY©q Ki| 3| (K) ¸YK wK? ¸YK cÖwµqvq wKfv‡e RvZxq Avq e„w× cvq? (L) GKB cwigvb ivR¯^ miKvi †_‡K K‡ii cwie‡Z© AvqK‡ii gva¨‡g wb‡j RvZxq Av‡qi Dci wK ai‡bi cÖfve co‡e Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| 4. (K) IS ‡iLv Kv‡K e‡j? IS ‡iLvi ¯’vbvš—i †`LvI| (L) IS-LM ‡iLvi mvnv‡h¨ fvimvg¨ RvZxq Avq I my‡`I nvi wba©viY Ki| Gi Dci A‡_©i †hvMvb e„w×I cÖfve †`LvI| (M) A‡_©I Pvwn`v wK? wewfbœ cÖKvi A‡_©I Pvwn`vi eY©bv `vI| 5| (K) m¤cÖmviYg~jK ivR¯^bxwZ ej‡Z wK eyS? (L) ÔµvDwWs AvDU ej‡Z wK eySvq? c~Y©, AvswkK I k~b¨ µvDwWs AvDU e¨vL¨v Ki| (M) †`LvI †h, wbgœ ÔDrcv`b ¯—iÕ Gi Zzjbq D”P ÔDrcv`‡b ¯—iÕ – G Avw_©K bxwZ AwaK Kvh©Ki| 6| (K) †eKviZ¡ ej‡Z wK eyS? †eKvi‡Z¡I nvi wKiƒ‡c cwigvc Kiv hvq? wewfbœ ai‡bi †eKviZ¡ eY©bv Ki| (L) IKzb wewai gva¨‡g cÖe„w×I mv‡_ †eKvi‡Z¡i m¤úK© e¨vL¨v Ki| (M) wdwjcm †iLvi gva¨‡g †eKvi‡Z¡I mv‡_ gy`ªvùxwZi m¤úK© e¨vL¨v Ki| (N) evsjv‡`‡k †eKviZ¡ wbim‡b wK wK c`‡¶c MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i? 7| (K) fvimvg¨ ej‡Z wK eyS? A_©bxwZ c~Y© wb‡qvM ¯—‡ii bx‡P fvimvg¨ _vK‡j Zvi mgvavb K‡í wPÎmn miKvix bxwZ eY©bv Ki| (L) gy`ªvùxwZ wK? A_©bxwZ‡Z gy`ªvùxwZ _vK‡j Zv wKfv‡e mgvavb Kiv hvq? 8| d«v‡¼ gwWMwjqvwb I AvjevU© G‡Ûv KZ©„K cÖ`Ë †fvM I m‡qi Rxeb Pµ Dc wm×vš—wU Av‡jvPbv Ki| 9| (K) wewb‡qvM wK? wewb‡qv‡Mi wba©viK mg~n wK? (L) ‡`Iqv Av‡Q, cÖKí wewb‡qvM e¨q (C) GK eQi ci Avq `yB eQi ci Avq cÖ_g 1 0 4 wØZxq 1 2 1 evRvi my‡`I nvi = 1 (2) NPV c×wZ‡Z †Kvb cÖKíwU AwaK MÖnY‡hvM¨| (22) IRR/MEI c×wZ‡Z †Kvb cÖKíwU AwaK MÖnY †hvM¨| 10| UxKv wjLt (K) mylg ev‡R‡U ¸YK; (L) wgZe¨wqZvi AvcvZ we‡ivwaZv; (M) ¯^qswµq w¯’wZkxj KviK; (N) ivR¯^bxwZ-Avw_©K bxwZ mswgkªY| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 206 Macro Economics Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Discuss the subject matter of macro economics. (b) What is the difference between GDP and GNP. (c) What is the difference between real GDP and nominal GDP. (d) What is “Problem of Double Counting”? Can it be resolved? 2. (a) Show the determination of national income in a simple Keynesian model. (b) What do you understand by inflationary gap and deflationary gap. How these problems can be solved. (c) Given, C = 100 + 0.9 yd I = 70 TR = 100 G = 200 t = 0.25 Find equilibrium national income, multiplier and budget surplus. 3. (a) What is multiplier? How national income is inversed through multiplier process? (b) Explain the effect on national income if government collects same amount of revenue through income tax instead of lump-sum tax. 4. (a) What is IS Curve? Show the shift of IS Curve? (b) Determine the equilibrium level of national income and rate of interest through the IS-LM schedule. Show the impact of increase in money supply on it. (c) What is demand for money? Describe different types of demand for money? 5. (a) What do you understand by expansionary fiscal policy? (b) What is meant by `crowding out’? Explain full, partial and zero crowding out. (c) Show that monetary policy is more effective at higher output level than at lower output level. 6. (a) What do you understand by unemployment? How is unemployment rate measured? Explain various types of unemployment. (b) Show relation between growth and unemployment with the help of Okun’s law. (c) Explain the relation between unemployment and inflation with the help of Phillips’ curve. (d) What steps can be taken to reduced unemployment in Bangladesh? 7. (a) What do you mean by equilibrium? Describe with the help of diagram the government policy meant for solving the problem associated with the economy remaining below full employment level. (b) What is inflation? How is it solved if there exists inflation in the economy? 8. Discuss ‘life-cycle hypothesis’ of consumption and savings expounded by Franco Modigliani and albert Ando. 9. (a) What is ‘investment’? What are the determination of investment? (b) Given, Project Investment Cost (c) Return After One year Return after two year First 1 0 4 Second 1 2 1 market Interest rate =1 (2) Which project is better according to NPV method? (2) Which project is better according IRR/MEI method? 10. Write shot notes: (a) Balanced budget multiplier. (b) Paradox of thrift. (c) Built-in-stabilizer. (d) Fiscal policy-monetary mix. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2009 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG-207 wnmveweÁvb cwiwPwZ c~Y©gvb : 100 mgq : 4 N›Uv ‡h ‡Kvb 5wU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) wnmveweÁv‡bi aviYvi msÁv `vI| wnmveweÁv‡bi aviYv¸‡jvi e¨vL¨v `vI| (L) wnmveweÁv‡bi cÖ_v ej‡Z wK eyS? wnmveweÁv‡bi cÖ_v Ges aviYvi g‡a¨ cÖv_©K¨ e¨vL¨v Ki| 2| (K) wnmve mgxKiY ej‡Z wK eySvq? wnmve mgxKiYwU e¨vL¨v Ki| (L) wnmve Pµ wK? wnmve P‡µi avc¸‡jv e¨vL¨v Ki| 3| (K) Pvjvbx Kvievi Kx? Pvjvbx Kvievi I weµ‡qi g‡a¨ cÖv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki| (L) †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM Kviev‡ii msÁv `vI| †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM Kvievi Ges Pvjvbx Kviev‡ii g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI| 4| PÆMÖv‡gi mvwKe eªv`vm© XvKvi mvgx †UªWv‡m©i wbKU 4,00,000.00 UvKvi cY¨ Pvjv‡b †cÖiY K‡i Ges fvov eve` 20,000.00 UvKv, exgv eve` 6,800.00 UvKv Ges wewea LiP eve` 1,500/- UvKv e¨q K‡i| mvgx †UªWvm© weµ‡qi Dci 10% Kwgkb QvovI SuywK evn‡Ki Kwgkb eve` 2% cv‡e| mvgx †UªWvm© ¸`vg fvov 8,000.00 UvKv I wewea LiP eve` 1,700.00 UvKv LiP K‡i‡Q| mvgx †UªWvm© mg¯— gvj 6,00,000.00 UvKvq weµq K‡i hvi g‡a¨ 1,00,000.00 UvKv cY¨ †µZv‡`i wbKU †_‡K cvIqv hvqwb| cieZ©x‡Z D³ UvKv Abv`vqx cvIbv e‡j cÖgvwYZ nq| cY¨ cÖvcK cY¨ †cÖi‡Ki wbKU weµq weeiYxmn cÖ‡`q cvwV‡q †`q| cÖ¯‘Z Ki- (K) mvwKe eªv`v‡m©I wnmv‡ei eB‡Z Pvjvb wnmve Ges mvgx †UªWv‡m©I wnmve| (L) mvgx †UªWv‡m©I wnmv‡ei eB‡Z eªv`v‡m©I wnmve Ges mvgx †UªWvm© KZ©„K †cÖwiZ weµq weeiYx| 5| (K) †hŠ_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvbx wK? †hŠ_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvbxi ˆewk󨸇jv D‡j­L Ki| (L) †kqvi ej‡Z wK eyS? †kqvi Ges FY c‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨¸‡jv wK wK? 6| Kwei I Lwei †Uwjwfkb †mU weµ‡qi wbwg‡Ë GKwU †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM e¨emv K‡i| Kwei XvKv n‡Z †Uwjwfkb †mU µq Ki‡e Ges Lwei ivRkvnx‡Z weµq Ki‡e| cÖ‡Z¨K c¶ Zvi wewb‡qv‡Mi Dci evwl©K 10% nv‡i my` cv‡e| Lwei weµ‡qi Dci 5% Kwgkb cv‡e Ges jvf-‡jvKmvb 3 t 2 Abycv‡Z ewÈZ n‡e| 2008 mv‡ji 1jv Rvbyqvix Zvwi‡L Kwei 2,50,000.00 UvKvi †Uwjwfkb †mU µq K‡I Lwe‡ii wbKU †cÖiY K‡i| Kwei LiP Ges fvov eve` 10,500.00 UvKv cÖ`vb K‡i| GB Zvwi‡L Lwei AwMÖg eve` 1,80,000.00 UvKv Kwe‡ii wbKU cvwV‡q †`q| Lwei AwMœexgv eve` 5,000.00 UvKv Ges ¸`vg fvov eve` 7,500.00 UvKv cÖ`vb K‡i| 2008 mv‡ji 1jv gvP© Zvwi‡L Pvjv‡bi 80% gvj 2,35,000.00 UvKvq weµq Kiv nq| 2008 mv‡ji 31jv gvP© Zvwi‡L Pvjv‡bi Aewkó 20% gvj 65,000.00 UvKvq weµq K‡i| H Zvwi‡L Lwei cÖ‡qvRbxq UvKv Kwe‡ii wbKU cvwV‡q †`q| cÖ¯‘Z Ki- (K) Kwe‡ii eB‡Z †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM wnmve Ges Lwe‡ii wnmve; Ges (L) Lwe‡ii eB‡Z †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM wnmve Ges Kwe‡ii wnmve| 7| (K) mvgvwRK wnmveweÁvb Kv‡K e‡j? mvgvwRK wnmveweÁv‡bi ˆewkó¨ mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| (L) evsjv‡`‡k wnmveweÁvb †ckv m¤ú‡K© GKwU msw¶ß weeiY `vI| 8| msw¶ß wUKv wjL: (†h †Kvb PviwU) (K) †kqvi Awanvi; (L) weµq weeiYx; (M) †kqvi Aenvi; (N) e¨v‡jÝ wkU; (O) Zdkxj-11| 9| wRgm †UªWv‡m©i 2008 mv‡ji 31†k wW‡m¤^i Zvwi‡Li †iIqvwgj wb‡gœ cÖ`Ë nj t wRgm †UªWvm© ‡iIqvwgj wW‡m¤^I 31, 2008 mvj wnmv‡ei wk‡ivbvg Ô‡WweUÕ UvKv Ô‡µwWUÕ UvKv g~jab 2,00,000.00 D‡Ëvjb 15,000.00 hš¿cvwZ 1,00,000.00 cÖviw¤¢K gRy` cY¨ (1-1-2008) 52,500.00 cY¨ µq 65,000.00 cY¨ weµq 1,95,000.00 ‡diZ 7,500.00 4,000.00 10% wewb‡qvM 70,000.00 fvov 4,000.00 gyRywi 5,000.00 Avg`vbx ïé 2,500.00 µq cwienb 2,500.00 weµq cwienb 3,500.00 Kwgkb 1,500.00 2,500.00 weÁvcb 10,000.00 ‡eZb 7,500.00 5% FY (1-7-2008) 50,000.00 bM` Znwej 20,000.00 e¨vsK Rgv 30,000.00 F‡Yi my` 1,000.00 wewb‡qv‡Mi my` 5,000.00 AvmevecÎ 50,000.00 e¨vsK RgvwZwi³ 15,000.00 Abv`vqx cvIbv 10,000.00 Abv`vqx cvIbv mwÂwZ 1,500.00 ‡`bv`vi I cvIbv`vi 42,500.00 27,000.00 5,00,000.00 5,00,000.00 mgš^q mg~n t (K) mgvcYx gRy` cY¨ 60,000.00 UvKvq g~j¨vwqZ n‡q‡Q| (L) gRywi 2,000.00 UvKv Ges †eZb 2,500.00 UvKv e‡Kqv i‡q‡Q; (M) fvov 1,000.00 UvKv AwMÖg cÖ`Ë n‡q‡Q; (N) 2,500.00 UvKv Abv`vqx cvIbv ¯^iƒc Ae‡jvcb Ki Ges Aewkó †`bv`v‡ii Dci 10% nv‡i Abv`vqx cvIbv mwÂwZ ˆZix Ki‡Z n‡e| (O) Avmevec‡Îi Dci 5% Ges hš¿cvwZi Dci 3% AePq avh¨ Ki‡Z n‡e| ‡Zvgv‡K 2008 mv‡ji 31†k wW‡m¤^I Zvwi‡L mgvß eQ‡ii µq-weµq wnmve I jvf-‡jvKmvb wnmve Ges D³ Zvwi‡Li DØZ©cÎ cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z n‡e| 10| (K) evsjv‡`‡k †hŠ_g~jabx †Kv¤úvbx¸‡jv †h mKj wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii †kqvi evRv‡i Bmy¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv Av‡jvPbv Ki| (L) cy¯—K g~‡j¨ †kqvi wewµ, evUvq †kqvi wewµ Ges wcÖwgqv‡g †kqvi wewµ ej‡Z wK eyS? Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2009 Public Administration PA 207 Introduction to Accounting Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Define Accounting Concept. Explain Accounting Concepts. (b) What is Accounting Convention? Explain the difference between Accounting Convention and Concept. 2. (a) What is meant by Accounting Equation? Explain the Accounting Equation. (b) What is Accounting Cycle? Explain the steps of Accounting Cycle. 3. (a) What is Consignment? Distinguish between Consignment and Sales. (b) Define Joint Venture. Show the difference between Joint Venture and Consignment. 4. Sakib Brothers of Chittagong consigns goods costing Tk. 4,00,000.00 to Sami Traders of Dhaka and incurs Tk. 20,000 as freight, Tk. 6,800.00 for insurance and Tk. 1,500.00 for Misc. expenses. Sami Traders is entitled to a commission of 10% and also 2% del-credere commission. Sami Traders spent Tk. 8,000.00 for godown rent and Tk. 1,700.00 for Misc. expenses. Sami Traders sold all the goods for Tk. 6,00,000.00 out of which Tk. 1,00,000.00 remained unrealised and subsequently become bad debts. The consignee remitted the balance due from him along with the Account sales. Prepare- (a) Consignment Account and Sami Traders Account in the books of Sakib Brothers. (b) Sakib Brothers Account in the books of Sami Traders and Account Sales sent by Sami Traders. 5. (a) What is Joint Stock Company? State the characteristics of Joint Stock Company. (b) What do you mean by Share? what are the differences between share and Debenture? 6. Kabir and Khabir started a joint venture to sell Television sets. Kabir was to purchase Television sets fromDhaka and send to Khabir who would sell in Rajshahi. Each party was to receive 10% interest p.a. on the capital invested. Khabir who to receive 5% commission on sales and profit and losses to be shared in the ratio of 3 : 2. on 1st January, 2008 Kabir purchases Television sets worth Tk. 2,50,000.00 and forwarded to Khabir. Kabir paid Tk. 10,500.00 as expanses and freight. On the same date Khabir sent Tk. 7,500.00 as godown sent. On 1st March, 2008 80% of the invoice goods were sold for Tk. 2,35,000.00. On March, 2008 rest 20% of the invoice goods were sold for Tk. 65,000.00. On this date Khabir sent the necessary amount to Kabir. Prepare- (a) Joint Venture Account and Khabir Account in the books of Kabir; and (b) Joint venture Account and Kabir Account in the books of Khabir. 7. (a) What is called social accounting? Narrate the characteristics of social accounting (c) Give a brief idea about the accounting profession in Bangladesh. 8. Write short Notes: (any four) (a) Share Premium; (b) Account Sales; (c) Share discount; (d) Balance Sheet; (e) Bonus Share; (f) Schedule-11. 9. The Trial Balance of GIMS Traders as on 31st December, 2008 is given below: GIMS Traders Trial Balance as at 31st December, 2008 Accounts Title Dr. Taka Cr. Taka Capital 2,00,000.00 Drawing 15,000.00 Machinery 1,00,000.00 Opening Stock (1-1-2008) 52,500.00 Purchases 65,000.00 Sales 1,95,000.00 Returns 7,500.00 4,000.00 10% Investment 70,000.00 Rent 4,000.00 Wages 5,000.00 Import Duty 2,500.00 Carriage Inwards 2,500.00 Carriage Outwards 3,500.00 Commission 1,500.00 2,500.00 Advertisement 10,000.00 Salaries 7,500.00 5% Loan (1-7-2008) 50,000.00 Cash in hand 20,000.00 Cash at bank 30,000.00 Interest on Loan 1,000.00 Interest on Investment 5,000.00 Furniture 50,000.00 Bank Overdraft 15,000.00 Bad Debts 10,000.00 Provision for Bad Debts 1,500.00 Debtors and Creditors 42,500.00 27,000.00 5,00,000.00 5,00,000.00 Adjustments: (a) Closing Stock was valued at Tk. 60,000.00; (b) Wages Tk. 2,000.00 and Salaries Tk. 2,500.00 are outstanding; (c) Rent Tk. 1,000.00 was paid in advance; (d) Write off Tk. 2,500.00 as bad debts and provision for doubtful debts to be maintained at 10% on remaining debtors; and (e) Depreciate 5% on Furniture and 3% on Machinery. You are required to prepare Trading Account and Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31st December, 2008 and the Balance Sheet as at 31st December, 2008. 10. (a) Narrate the different types of shares that can be issued by the joint stock companies of Bangladesh. (b) What do you mean by share issued at price, at a discount and at a premium? wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 201 miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h ‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) miKvix Kg©Pvix cªkvm‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡bi wewfbœ Af¨vMgmg~n mgv‡jvPbvmn Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| e¨e¯’vcbv wPšÍvi weKv‡k †d«WwiK †UBj‡ii Ae`vb mgv‡jvPbvmn Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| (K) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbv ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? (L) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbv wKfv‡e mvsMVwbK Kg©KZ©v‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i Zv ms‡¶‡c Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 4| (K) cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ cÖwk¶‡Yi m¤ú©K Kx ? (L) evsjv‡`‡k cÖkvmwbK Kg©KZ©v Dbœq‡b Ôevsjv‡`k †jvKcÖkvmb cÖwk¶Y †K‡›`ªÕi (wewcGwUwm) f~wgKv Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 5| (K)ÒKg© ïay A‡_©i wewbg‡q bq, Zv mvgvwRK `vqe×ZvI e‡UÓ – Dw³wU we‡k­lY K‡iv| (L) Kg©g~j¨vq‡bi mv‡_ K‡g©i MyYMZ gv‡bi m¤úK© Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 6| (K) Aveªvnvg gvm‡jvi †cªlYvZË¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) Zywg wK g‡b K‡iv ‡h, gvm‡jvi H ZË¡ mve©Rbxbfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨ ? 7| (K) Kgx©msMÖn Kx ? (L) Kgx©msMÖn I wbev©P‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨mg~n Kx ? (M) Kgx©wbe©vPb cÖwµqvq RwoZ c`‡¶cmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| (K) kªwgK msN Kx ? (L) evsjv‡`‡k kªwgK ms‡Ni `ye©jZvMy‡jv eY©bv K‡iv| (M) Gme `ye©jZv wKfv‡e KvwU‡q DVv m¤¢e ? 9| (K) †K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’v Kv‡K e‡j ? (L) †K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’vi cªKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (M) †K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’v wn‡m‡e miKvix Kg©Kwgk†bi f~wgKvi Dci Av‡jvKcvZ K‡iv| 10| UxKv wjL (‡h‡Kvb `yBwU) t (K) †eZb I gRywi cÖkvmb ; (L) gvbe m¤ú` e¨e¯’vcbv ; (M) Kg©Pvix M‡elYv ; (N) Kg©g~j¨vqb | Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 201 Public Personnel Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘public personnel administration’. (b) Critically discuss the various approaches to the study of personnel administration. 2. Critically discuss the contribution of Fredrick Taylor in the development of management thought. 3. (a) What is meant by ‘human resource planning’? (b) Discuss briefly how does human resource planning affect organizational performance . 4. (a) What are the relationships between ‘training’ and ‘change’? (b) Discuss the role of the BPATC in improving administrative practice in Bangladesh. 5. (a) “Job is not for money only it also a social obligation”- analyze the statement. (b) Discuss the Relation between ‘job evaluation’ and ‘quality of work’. 6. (a) Discuss the motivation theory of Abraham Maslow. (b) Do you think that the theory of Maslow is universally applicable? 7. (a) What is ‘recruitment’ ? (b) What are the differences between ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’? (c) Describe the steps involved in selection process of new employees. 8. (a) What is ‘trade union’ ? (b) Describe the weakness of the trade union in Bangladesh. (c) How these weaknesses can be removed? 9. (a) What do you mean by ‘central personnel agency’ ? (b) Discuss the typology of central personnel agency. (c) Highlight the role of Public Service Commission as a central personnel agency. 10. Write down short notes on any two of the following: (a) Wages and Salary Administration; (b) Human Resource Management; (c) Personnel Research; and (d) Job Evaluation. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm ( m¤§vb ) cix¶v 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 202 miKvix A_©cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) miKvix A_©cÖkvm‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) miKvix A_©cÖkvmb wKfv‡e ‡emiKvix A_©cÖkvmb †_‡K wfbœ ? Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| (K) ivR¯^ bxwZi msÁv `vI| (L) gy`ªvùxwZ I gy`ªvms‡KvPb wbqš¿‡Y ivR¯^ bxwZi Dc‡hvwMZv I mxgve×Zv Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| (K) Ki Kx ? (L) GKwU DËg Ki e¨e¯’vi ‰ewkó¨mg~n Kx ? (M) GB mKj ˆewk‡ó¨i Av‡jv‡K evsjv‡`‡ki eZ©gvb Ki e¨e¯’v we‡k­lY K‡iv| 4| (K) ev‡R‡Ui †kªYxwefvM Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) evsjv‡`‡ki Dbœqb ev‡RU wKfv‡e ˆZix nq ? 5| (K) ‘Drcv`bkxj e¨q’ I ‘Abyrcv`bkxj e¨q’ – Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbY©q K‡iv| (L) mv¤úªwZKKv‡j Abyrcv`bkxj Lv‡Z miKvix e¨q e„w×i KviYmg~n wbi“cY K‡iv| 6| evsjv‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡Ki f~wgKv cix¶v K‡iv| 7| cvewjK GKvD›Um KwgwU I gnvwnmvewbixÿ‡Ki we‡kl D‡j­Lc~e©K evsjv‡`k A_©cÖkvm‡bi Dci msm`xq wbqš¿‡Yi cwiwa g~j¨vqb K‡iv| 8| evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii A_© gš¿Yvj‡qi mvsMVwbK w`K I Kvh©vejx Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 9| evsjv‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b KvVv‡gvMZ ms¯‹vi Kg©m~Pxi cªfve g~j¨vqb K‡iv| 10| bx‡Pi †h †Kvb `ywUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) Avw_©K bxwZ ; (L) LiP – myweav we‡kølY ; (M) RvZxq ivR¯^ †evW© ; (N) ÔmgvbycvwZK KiÕ I ÔcÖMwZkxj KiÕ| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 202 Public Financial Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘public financial administration’. (b) How ‘public financial administration’ is different from ‘private financial administration’? Discuss. 2. (a) Define ‘fiscal policy’. (b) Discuss the usefulness and limitations of ‘fiscal policy’ to control ‘inflation’ and‘deflation’. 3. (a) What is ‘tax’ ? (b) What are the characteristics of a good tax system? (c) Analyze the present tax system of Bangladesh in the light of these characteristics. 4. (a) Discuss the classification of ‘budget’ . (b) How is ‘development budget’ prepared in Bangladesh? 5. (a) Differentiate between productive and unproductive expenditure. (b) Identify the factors that account for the growth of public expenditure in unproductive sectors in recent years . 6. Examine the role of the Bangladesh Bank in the economic development of Bangladesh. 7. Assess the extent of parliamentary control over financial administration in Bangladesh with special reference to : (a) The Public Accounts Committee, and (b) The Controller and Auditor General. 8. Discuss the organization and functions of the Ministry of Finance, Government of Bangladesh. 9. Evaluate the effects of structural adjustment programs on the economic development of Bangladesh. 10. Write short notes any two of the following: (a) Monetary Policy; (b) Cost Benefit Analysis; (c) National Board of Revenue; and (d) ‘Proportional Tax’ and ‘Progressive Tax’. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 203 M‡elYv we`¨v c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) mvgvwRK M‡elYv Kx ? (L) †jvK cÖkvmb Aa¨q‡b mvgvwRK M‡elYvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 2&| (K) M‡elYv c×wZ Kx ? (L) mvgvwRK M‡elYvi †h‡Kvb `ywU c×wZ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| (K) M‡elYv bKkv Kx ? (L) wbgœwjwLZ †h‡Kvb GKwU welq m¤ú‡K© M‡elYv bKkv cÖYq‡bi avcmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv t (i) bxwZ wbav©i‡b AvgjvZ‡š¿i f~wgKv ; (ii) `yb©xwZi KviY I djvdj ; (iii) evsjv‡`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡Z bvixi f~wgKv| 4| bgybvqb ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †Kb ? myweav-Amyweavmn wewfbœ cÖKvi bgybvqb c×wZ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 5| (K) Ô†dvKvm MÖ“c Av‡jvPbvÔ Gi wbqgvejx Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) Ô†dvKvm MÖ“c Av‡jvPbvÕ I Ab¨vb¨ ÔMZvbyMwZK c×wZÕ – Gi ga¨Kvi cv_©K¨¸wj wjL| 6| (K) cÖkœgvjvi msÁv `vI| (L) wbgœwjwLZ †h‡Kvb GKwU mgm¨vi Dci 10 wU cÖkœ m¤^wjZ GKwU cÖkœgvjv ‰Zix K†iv t (i) evsjv‡`‡ki Mv‡iv m¤cÖ`v‡qi Dci GKwU mgx¶v ; (ii) ¯’vbxq miKv‡i bvixi AskMÖnY ; (iii) PÆMÖvg e›`‡ii cÖkvmwbK `yb©xwZ | 7| (K) M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`b Kx ? (L) GKwU M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`‡bi avcmg~n mwe¯Ív‡i Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| (K) Rixc †Kb nq ? (L) evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Rwic c×wZ †KvbwU Ges †Kb ? (M) evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Rwic c×wZwUi myweav-Amyweav eY©bv K‡iv| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 203 Research Methodology Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What is ‘social research’? (b) Discuss the importance of social research in studying ‘public administration’. 2. (a) What is meant by ‘research method’? (b) Discuss any two methods of social research. 3. (a) What is ‘research design’? (b) Discuss the steps involved in formulating a research design for any two of the following topics : (i) Role of bureaucracy in policy making; (ii) Causes and consequences of corruption; (iii) Role of women in the economy of Bangladesh. 4. (a) Why is sampling important ? (b) Discuss the various sampling methods with merits and demerits. 5. (a) Discuss the rules of ‘focus group discussion’. (b) Write the differences between ‘traditional’ and ‘focus group discussion’ method. 6. (a) Define ‘questionnaire’. (b) Prepare a questionnaire at least 10 (ten) questions on any one of the following problems : (i) A study of the ‘Garo’ community in Bangladesh; (ii) Women’s participation in ‘local government’; (iii) Administrative corruption of ‘Chittagong Sea Port’. 7. (a) What is ‘research report’? (b) Discuss in details, the steps involved in a research report. 8. (a) Why are surveys conducted ? (b) Which survey is appropriate for Bangladesh and why? (c) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the survey appropriate for Bangladesh. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm cix¶v 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 204 cwimsL¨vb c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) cwimsL¨v‡bi msÁv `vI| cwimsL¨v‡bi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© ˆewkó¨ I mxgve×Zv D‡j­L K‡iv| (L) cv_©K¨ wbiƒcb K‡iv t (i) ‘mgMÖK’ I ‘bgybv’ (ii) ‘cÖv_wgK DcvË’ I ‘gva¨wgK DcvË’| (M) ‘¸YMZ PjK’ I ‘cwigvYMZ PjK’-Gi msÁv `vI| wbgœwjwLZ PjK¸wji †kªYxweb¨vm K‡iv t (i) GKRb Qv‡Îi eyw×gËv (ii) GKRb e¨emvqxi mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb (iii) GKwU kn‡ii Mo ZvcgvÎv (iv) GKRb e¨w³i ivR‰bwZK cwiwPwZ| 2| (K) ‘Z_¨ivwki ‰jwLK Dc¯’vcb’ e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (L) GKwU cix¶vq 60 Rb QvÎ QvÎxi cÖvß b¤^i wbgœiæc t 82 79 92 54 55 71 68 61 69 53 58 57 49 46 50 37 82 29 22 52 27 29 38 27 48 47 47 99 64 42 21 31 29 53 49 43 28 36 60 52 56 51 63 54 55 72 34 24 53 49 43 28 36 60 52 56 51 63 54 45 3| (K) ‡K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi cwigvc mg~n ms‡¶‡c e¨vL¨v K‡iv| MvwYwZK Mo‡K †Kb DËg cwigvcK ejv nq ? (L) †Kvb GKwU cix¶vq 90 Rb QvÎ-QvÎxi †jvKcÖkvmb wel‡q cÖvß b¤^‡ii NUbvmsL¨v wb‡ekb n‡jv t cÖvß b¤^i 30 Ñ 40 40 Ñ 50 50 Ñ 60 60 Ñ 70 70 Ñ 80 80 Ñ 90 QvÎ-QvÎxi msL¨v 10 12 24 26 10 08 web¨vmwUi Mo, cÖPyiK I 65Zg kZnvwi‡Ki gvb †ei K‡iv| 4| (K) we¯Ívi Kx ? cwiwgZ e¨eav‡bi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ˆewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| (L) `yÕRb wµ‡KUv‡ii wewfbœ Bwbsm-G AwR©Z iv‡bi †¯‹vi wbgœi“c t A 46 35 40 85 55 75 70 45 32 50 B 72 32 30 14 102 65 105 18 86 05 (i) †K AwaKZi fv‡jv ivbmsMÖnKvix ? (ii) †Kvb ‡L‡jvqvo AwaKZi mvgÄm¨c~Y© ? 5| (K) mn-m¤^Ü ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? mvgvwRK M‡elYvq mn-m¤^‡Üi f~wgKv ch©v‡jvPbv K†iv| (L) wb‡gœ †jvKcÖkvmb cÖ_g el© m¤§vb †kªbxi 10 Rb Qv‡Îi D”PZv Ges IRb †`Iqv n‡jv t D”PZv X (†m.wg) 160 171 180 156 162 168 165 175 160 170 IRb Y (†m.wg) 55 64 70 56 54 62 58 67 52 60 mn-m¤^‡Üi gvb †ei Ki Ges gšÍe¨ K‡iv| 6| (K) ‘wbf©iY †iLvi mgxKiY’ I ‘wbf©iv¼’-Gi e¨vL¨v `vI| (L) 10 Rb kªwg‡Ki ‰`wbK Avq (x) Ges ˆ`wbK e¨q (y) UvKvq †`Iqv n‡jv t ‰`wbK Avq (X) 150 200 120 180 160 190 220 210 155 175 ˆ`wbK e¨q (Y) 120 150 90 170 175 180 190 200 150 160 (i) Av‡qi (x) Dci e¨‡qi (y) wbf©iY †iLvi mgxKiY I wbf©iv‡¼i gvb wbY©q K‡iv| (ii) Av‡qi cwigvY 240 UvKv n‡j cÖZ¨vwkZ e¨q KZ? 7| (K) wb‡gœi c`¸wj e¨vL¨v K†iv ( ‡h‡Kvb wZbwU ) : (i) m¤¢vebv ; (ii) bgybvqb ; (iii) Z_¨ mgMÖ ; (iv) Kvjxb mvwi| (L) cÖ`Ë Z_¨ n‡Z Avav Mo †ei K‡i cÖeYZvi MwZgvb wbY©q K‡iv t ermi Drcv`b (nvRvi Ub) 1996 ————————— 56 1997 ————————— 58 1998 ————————— 60 1999 ————————— 61 2000 ————————— 63 2001 ————————— 65 2002 ————————— 65 2003 ————————— 67 2004 ————————— 68 2005 ————————— 70 2006 ————————— 68 2007 ————————— 72 8| (K) mgq Dëv‡bv cix¶v e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (L) cÖ`Ë DcvË n‡Z gvkv©j GRIqv_© I wdkv‡ii myÎ cÖ‡qvM K‡i g~j¨-m~PK msL¨v wbY©q K†iv| cY¨ wfwË eQi PjwZ eQi cwigvY gyj¨ cwigvY g~j¨ A 20 40 22 45 B 15 35 14 40 C 25 60 27 75 D 24 72 26 90 E 16 80 18 100 Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration Height X(cm) 160 171 180 156 162 168 165 175 160 170 Weight Y(kg) 55 64 70 56 54 62 58 67 52 60 PA 204 Statistics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘statistics’. Indicate the important functions and limitations of statistics. (b) Distinguish between: (i) ‘Population’ and ‘sample’ (ii) ‘Primary data’ and ‘secondary data’. (c) Define ‘qualitative variable’ and ‘quantitative variable’. Categorize the following variables : (i) Social status of a businessman (ii) Intelligence of a student; (iii) Mean temperature of a city; (iv) Political affiliation of a person. 2. (a) Explain the graphical representation of data. (b) The marks obtained by 50 students in an examination are: 82 79 92 54 55 71 68 61 69 53 58 57 49 46 50 37 82 29 22 52 27 29 38 27 48 47 47 99 64 42 21 31 29 53 45 51 27 57 49 44 47 48 53 64 94 72 34 24 53 49 43 28 36 60 52 56 51 63 54 55 (i) Construct a frequency distribution by taking 10 as class interval. (ii) Make frequency ‘polygon’ and ‘histogram’ from the distribution. 3. (a) Briefly explain the important measures of ‘central tendency’. Why is arithmetic mean known as the best measure ? (b) The distribution of the marks obtained by 90 students in public administration given : Marks obtained 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 60 – 70 70 – 80 80 – 90 Number of students 10 12 24 26 10 08 Find ‘mean’, ‘mode’ and 65th percentile of the distribution. 4. (a) What is ‘dispersion’? Discuss the important properties of standard deviation. (b) Two cricketers scored the following runs in several innings: A 46 35 40 85 55 75 70 45 32 50 B 72 32 30 14 102 65 105 18 86 05 (i) Who is the better scorer? (ii) Who is more consistent player? 5. (a) What is meant by ‘co-efficient of correlation’? Discuss the role of co-efficient of correlation in social research. (b) Given below are the height and weight of 10 students of 1st Hon’s class of public administration : Find the value of the co-efficient of correlation and comment. 6. (a) Explain ‘regression equations’ and ‘co-efficient of regression’. (b) The daily income (X) and expenditure (Y) in taka of 10 labors are given below: Daily X Income 150 200 120 180 160 190 220 210 155 175 Daily Y Expenditure 120 150 90 170 175 180 190 200 150 160 (i) Find regression equation and value of co-efficient of regression of expenditure (Y) on income (X). (ii) If the amount of income is Tk 240, what would me the expected expenditure? 7. (a) Explain the following terms ( any three) : (i) Probability, (ii) Sampling; (iii) Population, (iv) Time series. (b) Apply the method of semi averages of measuring trend from the following data: Year Production (in thousand tons) 1996 ————————— 56 1997 ————————— 58 1998 ————————— 60 1999 ————————— 61 2000 ————————— 63 2001 ————————— 65 2002 ————————— 65 2003 ————————— 67 2004 ————————— 68 2005 ————————— 70 2006 ————————— 68 2007 ————————— 72 8. (a) Explain ‘time reversal test’. (b) Compute price index number from the following data using Marshall-Edge worth and Fisher’s index number formula: Commodity Base Year Current year Quantity (qo) Price (po) Quantity (qn) Price (pn) A 20 40 22 45 B 15 35 14 40 C 25 60 27 75 D 24 72 26 90 E 16 80 18 100 wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cixÿv 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 205 ivR‰bwZK wPš—vaviv c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| ‘‡c­‡Uvi b¨vqZË¡’ aviYvwU Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| ‡c­‡Uv b¨vqZ‡Ë¡i Dci †Kb GZ ¸i“Z¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb? 2| “Gwi÷Uj n‡jb ivóªweÁv‡bi RbK” – e¨vL¨v K†iv| 3| “Ck¦‡ii mve©‡fŠg‡Z¡i aviYvB ga¨hy‡Mi ivR‰bwZK wPš—vavivi cÖavb ˆewkó¨” – Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 4| “‡gwKqv‡fwj ga¨hyM I AvaywbK hy‡Mi ivóªwPš—vi mwܶ‡Y `uvwo‡qwQ‡jb” – Dw³wU e¨vL¨v K†iv| 5| ‘Rb jK’‡K ‡Kb AvaywbK MYZ‡š¿i RbK ejv nq ? Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 6| ‘e¨w³ ¯^vaxbZv’ m¤ú‡K© ‘†R.Gm.wgj’-Gi aviYv Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 7| Kvj© gv‡•©i ivóª wPš—vi cÖK…wZ I ˆewkó¨ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| wb‡gœi †h‡Kvb `yÕwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) Be‡b Lj`y‡bi ivóªwPš—v ; (L) Bgvg Mv¾vjx (in:) Gi ivóªwPš—v ; (M) i“‡kvi ‘mvavib B”Qv’ ; (N) g‡›U¯‹y’i ‘¶gZv ¯^Zš¿xKiY bxwZ’| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 205 Political Thought Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Discuss Plato’s conception of justice. (b) Why did Plato attach so much importance to justice? 2. “Aristotle was the father of political science” – explain. 3. ‘The concept of sovereignty of God is the salient feature of mediaeval political thought’ – discuss. 4. “Machiavelli stood on the borderline between mediaeval and modern political thought” – explain the statement. 5. Why is John Locke called the ‘father of modern democracy’? Discuss. 6. Discuss J. S. Mill’s concept of ‘individual liberty’. 7. State the nature and characteristics of the political thought of Karl Marx. 8. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) Political thought of Ibn Khaldun (b) Political thought of Imam Gazzali (Rh) (c) Rousseau’s ‘General Will’ (d) Montesquieu’s ‘Separation of Power’ theory. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cixÿv 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 206 mvgwóK A_©bxwZ c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb 4 wU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) Ôgy`ªvùxwZÕ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? CPI e¨envi K‡i wKiƒ‡c gy`ªvùxwZi nvi wbY©q Kiv hvq ? (L) gy`ªvùxwZi KviY¸‡jv Kx Kx ? (M) ÔA_©bxwZÕ I ÔgvbylÕ – Gi Dci gy`ªvùxwZi Kx cÖfve c‡o ? (N) gy`ªvùxwZ wbqš¿‡Y Kx Kx e¨e¯’v †bIqv nq ? 2| (K) Ôwdwjc&m †iLvÕ Kx †`Lvq? (L) †`LvI †h, wbgœ Drcv`b ¯Í‡ii Zyjbvq D”P Drcv`b ¯’‡i Avw_©K bxwZ AwaK Kvh©Ki| (M) †`Iqv Av‡Q, Y = C + I + G C = 85 + .75yd Io = 30 Go = 100 To = 20 t = 0.20 RvZxq Avq (y) †ei K‡iv| 3| (K) IS †iLvi msÁv `vI| wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ IS †iLvi derivation e¨vL¨v K†iv| (L) miKvix e¨q e„w× wKfv‡e IS †iLv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i ? 4| (K) Zvij¨ dvu` Kx ? Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq A_©bxwZi mvgwMªK Pvwn`v †iLv wKiƒc nq ? (L) Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq †Kvb K¬¨vwmK¨vj g‡Wj AmsMwZc~Y© nq ? Kxbmxq g‡Wj †Kb AmsMwZc~Y© nq bv ? (M) wc¸ wKfv‡e †`Lvq †h, Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq K¬¨vwmK¨vj g‡WjI AmsMwZc~Y© nq bv ? 5| (K) Ô¸YKÕ Kx ? ¸YK cÖwµqvq wKfv‡e RvZxq Avq e„w× cvq ? (L) Ômylg ev‡RU ¸YKÕ aviYvwU e¨vL¨v K‡iv| 6| (K) ÔKxbmxq †fvM A‡cÿKÕ – Gi cÖavb ‰ewk󨸇jv Kx Kx ? (L) Ô†fvM A‡cÿK avuavÕ Kx ? GwU wKfv‡e mgvavb Kiv n‡q‡Q ? (M) †`Iqv Av‡Q, GKwU mÂq A‡cÿK, S = -150 + 0.20y i. †fvM A‡cÿK wbY©q K†iv| ii. MPC Ges APC ‡ei K‡iv| iii. ‡`LvI †h, MPC + MPS = 1 iv. ¸Y‡Ki gvb †ei K‡iv| v. RvZxq Avq 10,000 UvKv evov‡bvi Rb¨ wewb‡qvM KZ UvKv evov‡Z n‡e ? 7| (K) Ôwewb‡qvMÕ Kx ? (L) wb‡Pi wewb‡qvM cÖKí `yÕwU we‡ePbv K‡iv : wØZxq wcwiq‡W Z…Zxq wcwiq‡W LiP cÖvwß cÖvwß cÖKí – 1 t 1 0 4 cÖKí – 2 t 2 2 1 my‡`i nvi, r = 1 i. NPV c×wZ†Z †Kvb cÖKíwU AwaKZi fvj? ii. IRR c×wZ‡Z †Kvb cÖKíwU AwaKZi fvj? (M) A_©bxwZi mvgwMªK Pvwn`v †iLvi Dci miKvix wewb‡qvM e„w×i cÖfve †`LvI| 8| wb‡Pi welq¸wj m¤ú‡K© UxKv wj‡Lv t (K) µvDwWs AvDU (L) IKzbm wewa| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 206 Macro Economics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What do you understand by ‘inflation’? (b) What are the causes of inflation? (c) What is the impact of inflation on economy and on people? (d) What measures are taken to control inflation? 2. (a) What does ‘Phillips curve’ show ? (b) Show that monetary policy is more effective at higher output level than at lower output level. (c) Given, y = C + I + G C = 85 + 0.75yd Io = 30 Go = 100 To = 20 t = 0.20 Find national income (y). 3. (a) Define IS curve. Graphically explain the derivation of the IS curve. (b) How does an increase in government expenditure affect the IS curve? 4. (a) What is ‘liquidity trap’? How does economy’s aggregate demand curve look like in liquidity trap situation ? (b) Why classical model is inconsistent in liquidity trap situation? Why Keynsian model is not inconsistent? (c) How has Pigoue shown that in liquidity trap situation classical model is also not inconsistent ? 5. (a) What is ‘multiplier’ ? How national income is increased through multiplier process ? (b) Explain the concept of ‘balanced budget multiplier’. 6. (a) What are the salient features of ‘Keynsian consumption function’? (b) What is ‘consumption function puzzle’? How has it been resolved? (c) Given, The solving function, S = -150 + 0.20y (i) Derive the consumption function. (ii) Find MPC and APC. (iii) Show that MPC + MPS = 1. (iv) Find the value of multiplier. (v) How much increase in investment is required to raise national income by Tk. 10000. 7. (a) What is ‘investment’? (b) Consider the following two investment project: Return in Return in Cost project – 2 project – 3 Project – 1 : 1 0 4 Project – 2 : 1 2 1 Interest rate, r = 1 (i) Which project is better according to NPV method ? (ii) Which project is better according to IRR method ? (c) Show the effect of increase in government investment on the aggregate demand curve of economy. 8. Write short notes: (a) Crowding out; (b) Okun’s law. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2008 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG-207 wnmveweÁvb cwiwPwZ c~Y©gvb : 50 mgq : 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) ‘wnmve weÁvb’ Kx ? wnmve weÁv†bi aviYv I cÖ_v ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (L) `yÕZidv `vwLjv c×wZ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? †iIqvwgj Kx ? Gi `yÕw`K wg‡j †Kb ? 2| bx‡Pi †jb‡`b¸‡jv ûgvqyb ikx‡`i eB‡Z Rv‡e`vfy³ K†iv : Ryb 1, 2007 – ûgvqyb ikx` 5,00,000 UvKv wb‡q e¨emv ïiæ Ki‡jb| Ryb 1, 2007 – bM` 1,00,000 UvKvi gvj µq Ryb 1, 2007 – AvmevecÎ µq 20,000 UvKv Ryb 1, 2007 – bM` gvj weµq 25,000 UvKv Ryb 1, 2007 – gvmy‡`i wbKU evKx‡Z gvj weµq 7,000 UvKv Ryb 1, 2007 – †eZb cÖ`vb 5,000 UvKv Ryb 1, 2007 – Kwgkb cÖvwß 3,000 UvKv Ryb 1, 2007 – e¨w³MZ cÖ‡qvR‡b e¨emv †_‡K 2,000 UvKv D‡Ëvjb| 3| (K) ‘Pvjvbx Kvievi’ Kx ? ‘SzuwK enbKvix Kwgkb’ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (L) ‘Pvjvbx Kvievi’ I ‘†hŠ_ D‡`¨vM’ Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 4| wbgœwjwLZ Z_¨vejx n‡Z P~ovšÍ wnmve cÖ¯‘Z K‡iv t- ‡iIqvwgj weeiY ‡WweU UvKv ‡µwWU UvKv g~jab ——————————————- 50,000 µq ——————————————— 60,000 gRyZ cY¨ ————————————— 18,000 weµq ——————————————- 1,00,000 wewea †`bv`vi ———————————– 20,000 hš¿cvwZ —————————————– 40,000 wewea cvIbv`vi ——————————— 10,000 ‡eZb I fvZv ———————————– 10,000 ‡diZ ——————————————- 6,000 7,000 weÁvcb —————————————– 5,000 exgv wcÖwgqvg ———————————— 2,000 nv‡Z bM` ————————————— 5,000 1,67,000 1,67,000 mgš^qmg~n : 1| mgvcbx gRyZ cb¨ 20,000 UvKv| 2| AMÖxg cÖ`Ë exgv 500 UvKv| 3| hš¿cvwZi Dci 5% AePq ai‡Z n‡e| 4| 1000 UvKv KzFY wnmv‡e ev` w`‡Z n‡e | 5| e¨vL¨v K‡iv : (K) †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM ; (M) DØ„ËcÎ ; (L) wnmve Pµ ; (N) ev‡RU Pµ| 6| (K) ‘†kqvi’ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? †kqv‡ii wewfbœ cÖKvi mg~n Kx ? (L) cv_©K¨ wb‡`k© K†iv : (i) ‘‡kqvi’ I ‘FbcÎ’ (ii) ‘mvavib †kqvi’ I ‘†evbvm †kqvi’| 7| (K) ‘†Kv¤úvbx’ Kx ? (L) †Kv¤úvbxi †kªbxwefvM K‡iv| (M) ‘†Kv¤úvbx’ I ‘K‡cv©‡iU †mvk¨vj †imcbwmwewjwU’ – Gi ga¨Kvi m¤úK© e¨vL¨v K†iv| 8| UxKv wjL (†h †Kvb PviwU) : (K) wnmve mgxKiY ; (L) e¨emvwqK †jb‡`b ; (M) w¯’wZcÎ ; (N) wnmve; (O) e›Ub‡hvM¨ g~jab| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2008 Public Administration PA 207 Introduction to Accounting Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What is ‘accounting’? What do you mean by ‘accounting concepts and conventions’? (b) What do you mean by ‘double entry system’ of accounting? What is a ‘trial balance’? Why does it agree? 2. Journalize the following transactions in the book of Rokon Uddin – June 01, 2007 – Rokon started business with Tk. 5,00,000. June 03, 2007 – Purchased goods for cash Tk. 1,00,000. June 05, 2007 – Bought furniture worth Tk. 20,000. June 10, 2007 – Sold goods for cash Tk. 25,000. June 15, 2007 – Sold goods to Humayun on credit Tk. 7,000. June 20, 2007 – Paid salaries Tk. 5,000. June 25, 2007 – Received commission Tk. 3,000. June 28, 2007 – Withdrawn from business for personal purpose Tk. 2,000. 3. (a) What is consignment ? What do you understand by Del-credit commission? (b) Discuss the differences between consignment and Joint Venture. 4. Prepare the ‘Final Account’ from the following: Trial Balance Particular Debit Credit (Tk.) (Tk.) Capital ————————————————- 50,000 Purchase ———————————————– 60,000 Stock ————————————————— 18,000 Sales ————————————————— 1,00,000 Sundry Debtors ————————————— 20,000 Plant & Machinery ———————————– 40,000 Sundry Creditors ————————————- 10,000 Salary and Allowances —————————— 10,000 Return ————————————————– 6,000 7,000 Advertisement —————————————– 5,000 Insurance Premium ———————————– 2,000 Cash in hand ——————————————- 5,000 —————————————– 1, 67,000 1, 67,000 Adjustments: 1. Closing stock of Tk. 20,000. 2. Insurance period Tk. 5,000. 3. Depreciation on Plant and Machinery @ 5% 4. Write off Tk. 1,000 as bad debts. 5. Explain: (a) Joint Venture; (c) Balance Sheet; (b) Accounting Cycle; (d) Budget Cycle. 6. (a) What do you mean by ‘share’? What are the different types of shares? (b) Distinguish between: (i) ‘Shares’ and ‘Debentures’ (ii) ‘Ordinary Share’ and ‘Bonus Share’. 7. (a) What is ‘company’? (b) Classify the companies. (c) Explain the relationship between ‘company’ and ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR). 8. Write short notes (any four) : (a) Accounting Equation; (b) Business Transactions; (c) Balance Sheet; (d) Accounts; (e) Divisible Profit. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG- 201 miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv †h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) Kg©Pvix cÖkvm‡bi Af¨vMg¸‡jvi eY©bv `vI| 2| (K) ‘gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbv’ Kx ? (L) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbvi †gŠwjK Af¨vMgMy‡jv Kx ? e¨vL¨v K†iv| (M) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbv cªwµqvi wPÎ Avu‡Kv Ges Gi avc¸‡jv eY©bv K†iv| 3| (K) ‘†K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’v’ ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) †K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix ms¯’vi cÖKvi‡f` I Kvh©vejx Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 4| (K) Kg© we‡køl‡Yi msÁv `vI| (L) wP‡Îi gva¨‡g Kg© we‡k­lY cªwµqvwU †`LvI| (M) ‘Kg© mywbw`©óKiY’ we‡k­lY K‡iv| 5| (K) ‘cÖwk¶Y’ Kx ? (L) ‘cÖwk¶Y’ I wk¶v’i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI | (M) cÖwk¶Y cÖwµqvi iƒc‡iLv Zz‡j a†iv| 6| (K) ‘Kg© g~j¨vqb’ ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) Kg©g~j¨vq‡bi cÖavb aibmg~n ms‡¶‡c Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (M) Kg© g~j¨vq‡bi Zzjbvg~jK c×wZ mgv‡jvPbvmn Dc¯’vcb K†iv| 7| (K) ‘†cÖlYvi mvgvwRK-gb¯ÍZ¡’ ej‡Z Kx ‡evSvq? (L) G cÖm‡½ †cªlbvi ‘Pvwn`vi wmuwo ZË¡’ I ‘wØ-Dcv`vb ZË¡’ cix¶v K‡iv| 8| (K) wb‡qv‡Mi c×wZmg~n Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (L) evsjv‡`‡ki gZ GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡k †Kvb c×wZwU m‡e©vËg ? †Zvgvi Dˇii c‡¶ hyw³ `vI| 9| (K) gRywi I †eZb ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (L) gRywi I †eZ‡bi wba©viKmg~n Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 10| wb‡gœi †h‡Kvb `yÕwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) n_Y© cix¶Y ; (M) ‡hŠ_ `iKlvKwl ; (L) mvsMVwbK Dbœqb ; (N) cªwk¶‡Yi c×wZ| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 201 Public Personnel Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘public personnel administration’. (b) Describe the approaches to personnel administration. 2. (a) What is ‘human resource planning’? (b) What are the basic approaches to human resource planning? Explain. (c) Draw the diagram of the process of human resource planning and discuss its stages. 3. (a) What do you understand by ‘central personnel agency’? (b) Discuss the types and functions of personnel agency. 4. (a) Define ‘job analysis’. (b) Show with a diagram the process of job analysis. (c) Analyze job specification. 5. (a) What is ‘training’? (b) Differentiate between ‘training’ and ‘education’. (c) Sketch the process of training. 6. (a) What do you understand by ‘performance appraisal’? (b) Briefly discuss the major forms of performance appraisal. (c) Critically present he comparative method of performance appraisal. 7. (a) What is meant by ‘social psychology of motivation’? (b) Examine in this context the ‘theory of hierarchy of needs’ and the ‘two-factor theory’ of motivation. 8. (a) Discuss the methods of ‘recruitment’. (b) Which one do you think is the best for a developing country like Bangladesh? Give reasons for your answer. 9. (a) What do you understand by ‘wage and salary’? (b) Discuss the determinants of wage and salary. 10. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) Hawthorne Experiment; (b) Organizational Development; (c) Collective Bargaining; (d) Methods of Training. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 202 miKvix A_©cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv †h ‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) miKvix A_©cÖkvm‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) miKvix A_©cÖkvm‡bi cÖK…wZ I ‰ewkó¨ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (M) ‡jvKcÖkvm‡bi wk¶v_©x‡`i †Kb miKvix A_©cÖkvmb Aa¨qb Kiv DwPZ ? 2| (K) ivR¯^ bxwZi msÁv `vI| (L) gy`ªvùxwZ wbqš¿‡Y ivR¯^ bxwZi f~wgKv cix¶v K†iv| (M) DbœZ I Dbœqbkxj †`‡k ivR¯^ bxwZi f~wgKvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 3| (K) MªvgxY e¨vsK Kx ? (L) ¶z`ª FY e¨e¯’vcbvq MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki mdjZvi AšÍwb©wnZ Zvrch© g~j¨vqb K†iv| (M) MªvgxY e¨vsK cwiPvjbvi †¶‡Î wØZxq ch©v‡qi P¨v‡jÄMy‡jv Kx Kx ? 4| (K) K‡ii cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (L) GKwU DËg Ki e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvbyb I ‰ewkó¨mg~n wPwýZ K†iv| 5| (K) wek¦ e¨vs‡Ki cwiPvjbv KvVv‡gv Ges g~jab MVb cÖwµqv eY©bv K†iv| (L) Bmy¨, KvR/†mev I †KŠk‡ji Dci wfwË K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki Dbœq‡b Askx`vi wnmv‡e wek¦ e¨vs‡Ki f~wgKv g~j¨vqb K†iv| 6| evsjv‡`‡k ev‡RU cÖYqb cÖwµqvi GKwU msw¶ß aviYv `vI| 7| (K) evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡Ki Kvhv©ejx eY©bv K†iv| (L) AvaywbK A_©bxwZ‡Z evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡Ki f~wgKv I ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v K†iv| 8| (K) AvšÍR©vwZK gy`ªv Znwej cÖwZôvi D‡Ïk¨ I Gi Kvhv©ejx eY©bv K‡iv| (L) wek¦e¨vsK I AvšÍR©vwZK gy`ªv Znwe‡ji Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ Kx cv_©K¨ Av‡Q ? 9| (K) miKvix A_©cÖkvmb‡K wbqš¿Y Kivi †¶‡Î evsjv‡`k RvZxq msm` KZ…©K e¨enƒZ c×wZ¸‡jv g~j¨vqb K†iv| (L) G c×wZ¸wji mxgve×Zv m¤ú‡K© †Zvgvi gZvgZ e¨³ K†iv| 10| bx‡Pi †h †Kvb `yÕwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjLt (K) me©vwaK mvgvwRK myweav bxwZ ; (L) ‘miKvix A_© cÖkvmb’ I ‘†emiKvix A_© cÖkvmb’; (M) ‘wRwWwc’ I ‘wRGbwc’; (N) evsjv‡`k e¨vsK| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 202 Public Financial Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘public financial administration’ and discuss it’s nature and characteristics. (b) Why should the students of ‘public administration’ study ‘public financial administration’? 2. (a) Define ‘fiscal policy’. (b) Examine the role of fiscal policy in controlling inflation. 3. (a) What is ‘Grameen Bank’? (b) Determine the inherent sense of the success of Grameen Bank in micro credit management. (c) What are the second phase challenges in operating Grameen Bank? 4. (a) Discuss the types of ‘tax’. (b) Identify the canons and characteristics of a good taxation system. 5. (a) Describe the structure of the governance and the process of capital formation of the World Bank. (b) Assess the role of World Bank on the basis of issues, functions/services and strategies as a development partner of Bangladesh. 6. Give a brief idea about the process of the formulation of budget in Bangladesh. 7. (a) Narrate the functions of commercial banks. (b) Explain the role and importance of commercial banks in modern economy. 8. (a) Describe the objectives of establishing International Monetary Fund and its functions. (b) What are the differences between the functions of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund? 9. (a) Assess the methods used by the national parliament of Bangladesh in controlling financial administration. (b) Give your opinion regarding the limitations of these methods. 10. Write short notes on any two of the followings: (a) Maximum Social Advantage Principle; (b) Public Financial Administration and Private Financial Administration; (c) ‘GDP’ and ‘GNP’; (d) Bangladesh Bank. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 203 M‡elYv c×wZwe`¨v c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv †h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) mvgvwRK M‡elYv Kx? (L) †jvK cÖkvmb Aa¨q‡b mvgvwRK M‡elYvi ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| mvgvwRK M‡elYvi DcvË msMÖ‡ni Drm I c×wZ mg~n Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 3| mvgvwRK M‡elYvi avcmg~n mwe¯Ív‡i Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 4| (K) bgybvqb ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †Kb? (L) myweavÑAmyweavmn wewfbœ cÖKvi bgybvqb c×wZ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 5| (K) cwigvc Kx ? (L) cwigv‡ci ‡¯‹jmg~n Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 6| (K) cÖkœgvjv Kx I KZ cÖKvi ? (L) wbgœwjwLZ †h †Kvb GKwU wel‡qi Dci 10 wU cÖkœ m¤^wjZ GKwU cÖkœgvjv ‰Zix K‡iv t (i) QvÎ ivRbxwZ; (ii) †hŠZyK cÖ_v| 7| GKwU M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`‡bi avcmg~n mwe¯Ív‡i Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| bx‡Pi †h †Kvb `yÕwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) cÖvK-Abygvb (M) PjK (L) M‡elYv Pµ (N) ZË¡ Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 203 Research Methodology Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What is ‘social research’? (b) Discuss the importance of social research in studying public administration. 2. Discuss the various sources and methods of data collection. 3. Discuss in detail the steps of social research. 4. (a) Why is ‘sampling’ important ? (b) Discuss the various sampling methods with merits and demerits. 5. (a) What is ‘measurement’? (b) Discuss the scales of measurement. 6. (a) What is ‘questionnaire’ and what are its types ? (b) Prepare a questionnaire containing at least ten questions on any of the questions : (i) Student Politics (ii) Dowry. 7. Discuss in detail the steps of a research report. 8. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) Hypothesis (b) Research Cycle (c) Variable (d) Theory. wØZxq el© weGmGm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 204 cwimsL¨vb c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv †h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) cwimsL¨v‡bi msÁv `vI| (L) mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK NUbvejx we‡k­l‡Y cwimsL¨v‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (M) †Kvb GKwU miKvix cÖwZôv‡bi Kg©KZ©v Kg©Pvix‡`i msL¨v wb‡P †`Iqv n‡jv t †kªYx 1g 2q 3q 4_© Kg©KZ©v/Kg©Pvix‡`i msL¨v 15 20 25 40 e„Ë wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Dc‡iv³ Z_¨ Dc¯’vcb K‡iv| 2| (K) ‘cwimsL¨vb wb‡ekb’ †Kb ¸i“Z¡c~Y© ? Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (L) wK‡jvMªvª‡g GKwU †kªYxi 55 Rb Qv‡Îi IRb wb‡gœ †`Iqv n‡jv t 40 73 40 82 67 41 78 60 75 63 83 53 99 75 50 115 65 61 84 77 95 56 67 68 104 79 79 54 73 80 58 101 80 68 48 77 84 76 42 64 91 69 81 70 71 49 79 103 95 51 85 92 78 72 94 Dc‡iv³ Z_¨ivwki mvnv‡h¨ 5 †kªYxe¨vwß we‡ePbv K‡i ‘cwimsL¨vb wb‡ekb cÖ¯‘Z K†iv| 3| (K) ‘†K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi cwigvc’ ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? (L) †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi †Kvb cwigvcwU m‡e©vËg Ges ‡Kb ? (M) †Kvb GKwU kn‡ii 20 ermi ev Z`~a© 100 Rb †fvUv‡ii Dci ˆ`efv‡e cwiPvwjZ Rwic †_‡K wb‡gœv³ eqm-KvVv‡gv cvIqv †Mj t eqm 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 60 – 70 70 – 80 ‡fvUvi msL¨v 20 25 30 15 7 3 wb‡gœv³¸‡jv †ei K†iv t (K) Mo (L) ga¨gv (M) cÖPziK (N) cwiwgZ e¨eavb (O) e¨eavbv¼| 4| (K) ‘we¯Ívi’ ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) we¯Ívi cwigv‡ci †Kvb cwigvcwU Zzwg DËg g‡b K†iv Ges †Kb ? (M) wb‡gœi mviYx†Z A I B e¨vUm&g¨vb؇qi K‡qKwU Bwbs‡mi †¯‹vi †`Iqv n‡jv| †Kvb e¨vUm&g¨v‡bi †¯‹vi mvgÄm¨c~Y© ? A 65 75 15 12 39 19 82 84 96 47 B 37 29 05 20 21 11 40 72 55 35 5| (K) ‘mn-m¤^Üv¼’ Kx ? mgvRweÁv‡bi M‡elYvq m¤^Üv†¼i ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (L) wb‡gœ GKwU †kªbxi 10 Rb Qv‡Îi D”PZv Ges IRb ‡`Iqv n‡jv| X D”PZv (BwÂ) 72 62 66 56 68 70 65 60 63 58 Y IRb (†K.wR.) 50 50 58 46 63 60 54 52 54 53 mnm¤^Üv‡¼i gvb ‡ei K‡iv Ges gšÍe¨ K‡iv| 6| (K) ‘mn-m¤^Ü’ I ‘wbf©i‡Yi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbiƒcY K†iv| (L) wb‡gœi DcvË n‡Z X Gi Dci Y Gi ‘wbf©iv¼’ I ‘wbf©iY †iLvi mgxKiY’ wbY©q K†iv| X 3 6 8 10 14 15 14 16 Y 8 5 10 12 15 16 16 20 7| (K) ‘Kvjxb mvix’ Kx ? (L) Gi cÖavb Dcv`vb¸‡jvi msw¶ß eYb©v `vI| (M) Kvjxb MwZi cwigvc Kx Kx ? (N) cÖ`Ë Z_¨ n‡Z AvavMo †ei K‡i cÖeYZvi MwZgvb wbY©q K†iv t ermi Drcv`b (nvRvi Ub) 1995 ———————————- 42 1996 ———————————- 48 1997 ———————————- 57 1998 ———————————- 54 1999 ———————————- 58 2000 ———————————- 60 2001 ———————————- 56 2002 ———————————- 61 2003 ———————————- 59 2004 ———————————- 58 2005 ———————————- 65 2006 ———————————- 63 8| (K) ‘mgq Dëv‡bv cix¶v’ e¨vL¨v K†iv| (L) wb‡gœi mviYx †_‡K ‘j¨vmwcqvm©’ I ‘wdkvi’-Gi m~Î e¨envi K‡i m~PK msL¨v †ei K‡iv t cY¨ wfwË eQi PjwZ eQi c‡Y¨i cwigvY c‡Y¨i g~j¨ c‡Y¨i cwigvY c‡Y¨i g~j¨ A 12 16 16 20 B 10 20 12 22 C 14 22 16 28 D 13 16 17 19 E 17 26 20 26 Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 204 Statistics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Define statistics. (b) Discuss the importance of statistics in the analysis of social and political events. X 3 6 8 10 14 15 14 16 Y 8 5 10 12 15 16 16 20 (c) Following are the numbers of officers and stuff of government institution : Class 1st 2nd 3rd 4th No. of officers/stuffs 15 20 25 40 Present the above data with the help of a pie-chest. 2. (a) Why is ‘frequency distribution’ important ? Discuss. (b) The weights in kilograms of 55 students of a class are given below: 40 73 40 82 67 41 78 60 75 63 83 53 99 75 50 115 65 61 84 77 95 56 67 68 104 79 79 54 73 80 58 101 80 68 48 77 84 76 42 64 91 69 81 70 71 49 79 103 95 51 85 92 78 72 94 Average the above data in a frequency distribution. 3. (a) What is meant by ‘central tendency’? (b) Which one of the measures of central tendency is the best and why? (c) From a random survey conducted in a city on 100 voters aged 20 years or more the following age structure is obtained : Age 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 60 – 70 70 – 80 No. of Voters 20 25 30 15 7 3 Calculate the following: (a) Means (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Standard Deviation (e) Coefficient of Variation. 4. (a) What do you mean by ‘dispersion’? (b) Which measure of dispersion do you think to be the best and why? (c) The following are the scores of two batsmen A & B in a series of innings, who is more consistent batsman ? A 65 75 15 12 39 19 82 84 96 47 B 37 29 5 20 21 11 40 72 55 35 5. (a) What is ‘co-efficient of correlation’? (b) Explain the importance of co-efficient of correlation in social science research. (c) Given below are the heights and weights of 10 students of a class: Height X (cm) 72 62 66 56 68 70 65 60 63 58 Weight Y (kg) 50 50 58 46 63 60 54 52 54 53 6. (a) Identify the relationship between correlation and regression. (b) Compute co-efficient of regression and regression equation of Y on X from the following data : 7. (a) What is ‘time series’? (b) Give a brief description of its main components. (c) What are the measures of secular trend? (d) Find the trend by semi average method from the following data: Year Production (Thousand Tones) 1995 ——————————————– 42 1996 ——————————————– 48 1997 ——————————————– 57 1998 ——————————————– 54 1999 ——————————————– 58 2000 ——————————————– 60 2001 ——————————————– 56 2002 ——————————————– 61 2003 ——————————————– 59 2004 ——————————————– 58 2005 ——————————————– 65 2006 ——————————————– 63 8. (a) Explain ‘time reversal test’. (b) Compute price index number from the following data using Laspeyer’s and Fisher’s index number formula: Commodity Base Year Current Year Quality Price Quality Price A 12 16 16 20 B 10 20 12 22 C 14 22 16 28 D 13 16 17 19 E 17 26 20 26 wØZxq el© weGmGm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 205 ivR‰bwZK wPšÍvaviv c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv †h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) ivóªwPšÍv Ges †jvKcÖkvmb Z‡Ë¡i ga¨Kvi m¤úK© Kx ? (L) †jvKcÖkvmb Aa¨q‡b ivóªwPšÍvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| ‡c­‡UvÕi Av`k© iv‡óªi cwiKíbvwU ms‡¶‡c Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| (K) Gwi÷U‡ji gZvbyhvqx wec­‡ei KviYmg~n Kx Kx ? (L) Gi cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq m¤ú†K© wZwb Kx e‡j‡Qb ? (M) wec­‡ei KviY m¤ú†K© Zvui aviYvwU GL‡bv cÖ‡hvR¨ wK ? 4| †mB›U _gvm GKzBbv‡mi AvBb m¤úwK©Z e¨L¨vwU Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 5| (K) ag© I ‰bwZKZv m¤ú†K© †gwKqv‡fjxÕi `„wóf½x chv©‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) Zvu‡K AvaywbK iv†óªi RbK ejv nq †Kb? 6| (K) ¯^vaxbZv Ges cÖwZwbwaZ¡g~jK miKvi m¤^‡Ü ‘†R. Gm. wgj’-Gi aviYv Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖ¶vc‡U Zvui e³e¨wU KZUzKz cÖvmw½K ? 7| ‘ne&m’, ‘jK’ Ges ‘iæ‡kv’i mvgvwRK Pyw³ gZev‡`i GKwU Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| wb‡gœi †h‡Kvb `yÕwUi Dci msw¶ß UxKv wjL t (K) MÖxK mgv‡R `vk©wbKMY Ges mwdóMY ; (L) Gwi÷U‡ji g†Z miKv‡ii †kªYxwefvM ; (M) †mB›U AMvw÷‡bi ivR‰bwZK `k©b ; (N) iy‡kvi ‘mvaviY B”Qv’| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 205 Political Thought Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What is the relationship between ‘political thought’ and ‘public administration’? (b) Discuss the importance of political thought in the study of public administration. 2. Discuss in brief, the ideal state plan of Plato. 3. (a) What, according to Aristotle, are the causes of revolution ? (b) What remedies did Aristotle suggest? (c) Are his views about the causes of revolution tenable today? 4. Discuss the explanation of Saint Thomas Acquinus regarding different laws. 5. (a) Review the views of Machiavelli regarding religion and ethics. (b) Why is he regarded as the father of modern politics? 6. (a) Discuss J. S. Mill’s views on liberty and representative government. (b) How far are his views relevant for Bangladesh? 7. Give a comparative analysis of the social contract theory of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. 8. Write notes on any two of the followings: (a) Philosophers and Sophists in the ancient Greek society; (b) Aristotle’s classification of government; (c) Saint Augustin’s political philosophy; (d) Rousseau’s ‘general will’. wØZxq el© weGmGm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 206 mvgwóK A_©bxwZ c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv †h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) gy`ªvùxwZ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? gy`ªvùxwZi KviY¸‡jv Kx Kx ? (L) A_©bxwZ I gvby‡li Dci gy`ªvùxwZi Kx cÖfve c‡o ? (M) gy`ªvùxwZ wbqš¿‡Y Kx Kx e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv nq ? 2| (K) †`LvI †h, wbgœAvq¯Í‡ii Zzjbvq D”PAvq¯Í‡i Avw_©K bxwZ AwaK Kvh©Ki| (L) bx‡Pi Z_¨¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i e¨w³MZ e¨q‡hvM¨ Avq †ei Ki| (i) †gvU Af¨šÍixY Drcv`‡bi cwigvY = 5677.5 wewjqb Wjvi ; (ii) we‡`k †_‡K cÖvß bxU DcKi‡Yi g~‡j¨i cwigvY = 17.5 wewjqb Wjvi (iii) g~ja‡bi AePq (¶q-¶wZ) RwbZ e¨‡qi cwigvY = 626.1 wewjqb Wjvi ; (iv) c‡iv¶ K‡ii cwigvY = 475.2 wewjqb Wjvi ; (v) RbM‡Yi wbKU miKvix I e¨emvwqK cÖwZôv‡bi wewbg‡qi cwigvY = 771.1 wewjqb Wjvi ; (vi) K‡cv©‡iU gybvdvi cwigvY = 346.3 wewjqb Wjvi ; (vii) mvgvwRK wbivcËvi cwigvY (wWwf‡WÛ) = 137.0 wewjqb Wjvi ; (viii) e¨w³MZ Ki Ges Ki-ewn©f~Z e¨‡qi cwigvY = 618.7 wewjqb Wjvi| 3| (K) ¸YK Kx ? (L) ¸YK cÖwµqvq wKfv‡e RvZxq Avq e„w× cvq ? e¨vL¨v K†iv| (M) AvqKi‡K †Kb ¯^qswµq w¯’wZkxjKviK ejv nq ? 4| (K) mylg ev‡RU ¸YK aviYvwU e¨vL¨v K†iv| (L) bx‡Pi g‡WjwU we‡ePbv K†iv t TR = 100 t = 0.25 C = 100 + .9 yd I = 70 G = 200 fvimvg¨ RvZxq Avq¯Íi, MyYK Ges ev‡RU DØ„Ë †ei K‡iv| 5| (K) IS – ‡iLv †Kb Wvbw`‡K wbgœMvgx Zv e¨vL¨v K†iv| (L) fvimvg¨ Av‡qi Dci miKvix e¨q e„w× Ges A‡_©i †hvMvb e„w× I cÖfve †Kgb n‡e Ges †Kb ? †Zvgvi DËi IS-LM g‡W‡ji mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v K†iv| 6| (K) wd«Wg¨v‡bi ¯’vqx Avq Dcwm×všÍwU e¨vL¨v K†iv| (L) GB ZË¡ Mo †fvM cÖeYZvi `xN©Kvjxb w¯’iZv I ¯^íKvjxb cwieZ©bxqZv msµvšÍ ev¯Íe cwijw¶Z auvauvwU wKfv‡e e¨vL¨v K†i ? (M) ‘¯’vqx Avq Dcwm×všÍ’ wKfv‡e ‘Av‡cw¶K Avq Dcwm×všÍ’ †_‡K c„_K? 7| (K) wewb‡qvM ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) wewb‡qvM wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y bxU eZ©gvb g~j¨ c×wZwU e¨vL¨v K†iv| 8| msw¶ß UxKv wj†Lv t (K) IKzb&m wewa ; (L) wdwjcm †iLv ; (M) wgZe¨wqZvi AvcvZwe‡ivwaZv| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 206 Macro Economics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What do you mean by ‘inflation’? (b) What are the causes of inflation? (c) What is the impact of inflation on economy and on people? (d) What measures are taken to control inflation? 2. (a) Show that monetary policy is more effective at high income level than at low income level. (b) Considering the following information, find out disposable personal income : (i) Gross domestic product = 5677.5 billion dollers ; (ii) Factor payments from abroad = 17.5 billion dollers ; (iii) Capital consumption allowance = 626.1 billion dollers ; (iv) Indirect taxes = 475.2 billion dollers ; (v) Government and business transfers to persons = 771.1 billion dollers ; (vi) Corporate profits = 346.3 billion dollers ; (vii) Social security contributions = 528.8 billion dollers ; (viii) Dividends = 137.0 billion dollers ; (ix) Personal tax and non-tax payments = 618.7 billion dollers. 3. (a) What is ‘multiplier’? (b) How is national income increased through multiplier process? Explain. (c) Why is income tax called ‘built-in-stabilizer’? 4. (a) Explain the concept of ‘balanced budget multiplier’. (b) Consider the following model: TR = 100 t = 0.25 C = 100 + .9 yd I = 70 G = 200 Findout ‘eqilibrium national income’, ‘multiplier’ and ‘budget surplus’. 5. (a) Explain why IC curve slopes downward to the right ? (b) What will be the effects of an increase in money supply on eqilibrium income and why? Explain your answer using IS-LM model. 6. (a) Explain Friedman’s ‘Permanent Income Hypothesis’. (b) How does the theory resolve the empirical puzzle about long-run stability of and short-run variation in the average propensity to consume ? (c) How is the ‘Permanent Income Hypothesis’ different from the ‘Relative Income Hypothesis’. 7. (a) What do you understand by ‘investment’? (b) What are the determinants of investment? (c) Explain ‘Net Present Value’ (NIV) method of investment decision taking. 8. Write short notes on: (a) Okun’s Law; (b) Phillip’s Curve (c) Paradox of Thrift. wØZxq el© weGmGm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2006 †jvKcÖkvmb wcG 207 wnmveweÁvb cwiwPwZ c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv †h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) GKwU miKvix cÖwZôv‡b wnmveweÁv‡bi f~wgKv I ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| (L) wnmveweÁv‡bi aviYv ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (M) e¨emvq ¯^Z¡v aviYv wKfv‡e wnmvei¶Y cÖwµqv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i ? 2| Rbve Imgvb 2006 mv‡ji 1jv Ryb e¨emv ïiæ K‡ib | bx‡Pi †jb‡`b¸‡jv wg‡mm Imgv‡bi eB‡Z Rv‡e`vfy³ K†iv| Ryb 1, 2006 – 5,00,000 UvKv w`‡q e¨emv ïiæ K‡ib| Ryb 2, 2006 – bM‡` 2,00,000 UvKvi gvj µq| Ryb 5, 2006 – gvmy‡`i wbKU evKx‡Z 50,000 UvKvi weµq| Ryb 9, 2006 – bM‡` gvj weµq 1,00,000 UvKv| Ryb 10, 2006 – gvmy‡`i wbKU †_‡K bM‡` cvIqv †Mj 40,000 UvKv| Ryb 12, 2006 – †eZb cÖ`vb 5,000 UvKv| Ryb 15, 2006 – fvov cÖvwß 4,000 UvKv| Ryb 20, 2006 – e¨w³MZ cÖ‡qvR‡b e¨emv †_‡K 3,000 UvKv MÖnY| 3| (K) ‘Pvjvbx Kvievi’ Kx ? (L) ‘SzuwK enbKvix Kwgkb’ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (M) ‘‡hŠ_ D‡`¨vM’ I ‘Pvjvbx Kvievi’- Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv K†iv| 4| mvBd-Dj-Bmjv‡gi wb‡gœv³ †iIqvwgj n‡Z 2006 mv‡ji 31†k wW‡m¤^i †kl nIqv erm‡ii ‘µq weµq wnmve’, ‘jvf-‡jvKmvb wnmve’ Ges D³ Zvwi‡Li ‘w¯’wZcÎ ’ cÖ¯‘Z K†iv t †iIqvwgj 31‡k wW‡m¤^i 2006 weeiY ‡WweU UvKv weeiY ‡µwWU UvKv µq ————————–gRyZ cY¨ ——————–hš¿cvwZ ———————-wewea ‡`bv`vi —————-‡diZ ————————‡eZb I fvZv —————–weÁvcb ———————-exgvi wcÖwgqvg —————-nv‡Z bM` ——————– 60,000 18,000 40,000 20,000 6,000 10,000 5,000 2,000 5,000 g~jab ————————–weµq ————————–wewea cvIbv`vi —————-‡diZ ————————– 50,000 1,00,000 10,000 7,000 me©‡gvU 1,67,000 me©‡gvU 1,67,000 mgš^qmg~n t (i) mgvwß gRyZ cY¨ = 20,000 UvKv| (ii) AwMªg cÖ`Ë exgv = 500 UvKv| (iii) hš¿cvwZi Dci 5% AePq ai‡Z n‡e| (iv) 1000 UvKv KyFY wnmv‡e ev` w`‡Z n‡e| 5| (K) ‘†kqvi’ ej‡Z Kx ‡evS ? (L) ‘†kqvi’ I ‘wW‡eÂvi’ Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ? (M) ‘†evbvm ‡kqvi’ Gi msÁv `vI| (N) Kx cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Ges Kx D‡Ï‡k¨ †evbvm †kqvi Bmy¨ Kiv hvq ? 6| 30†k Ryb 2006 Zvwi‡L †mwjg Djøvn GÛ mÝ wjwg‡UW – Gi †iIqvwgj wbgœiƒc t weeiY ‡WweU UvKv ‡µwWU UvKv gRyZ ——————————————–weµq ——————————————-µq ———————————————gRywi ——————————————–evÆv ———————————————†eZbvw` —————————————–fvov ——————————————–mvaviY LiP ————————————-wewb‡qvM —————————————-†kqvi (10 UvKv nv‡i 1000wU) ——————-†`bv`vi I cvIbv`vi —————————–KjKâv I hš¿cvwZ ——————————bM` I e¨vsK Rgv ——————————- 7,500 24,500 5,000 700 2,700 1,200 1,800 3,000 5,000 3,000 2,800 45,000 500 10,000 1,700 me©‡gvU 57,200 57,200 wb‡gœv³ mgš^‡qi gva¨‡g ‘µq weµq wnmve’, ‘jvf ‡jvKmvb wnmve’ I ‘w¯’wZcÎ ’ cÖ¯‘Z K‡iv t mgš^qmg~n t (i) KvjvwšÍK gRyZ = 2000 UvKv ; (ii) hš¿cvwZi Ici 10% nv‡i AePq ; (iii) ‡`bv`v‡ii Dci 10% I cvIbv`v‡ii Dci 5% mwÂwZ ; (iv) GKgv‡mi fvov e‡Kqv = 500 UvKv| 7| ms‡¶‡c e¨vL¨v K†iv (†h†Kvb `yÕwU) t (K) SzuwK evn‡Ki Kwgkb (L) wRGGwc (M) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvbx (N) weeiYx ‡hŠ_ D‡`¨vM wnmve (O) jyKv c¨vwmIjx| 8| msw¶ß UxKv wj†Lv (†h†Kvb PviwU) t (K) wnmve Pµ ; (L) wnmve weÁv‡bi aviYv ; (M) †iIqvwgj; (N) e¨emvwqK ‡jb‡`b; (O) `yÕZidv `vwLjv c×wZ ; (P) ‘mvaviY †kqvi’ I ‘AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi’| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2006 Public Administration PA 207 Introduction to Accounting Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Discuss the role and importance of Accounting in a public corporation. (b) What do you mean by Accounting Concepts? (c) How does the ‘business entity concept’ influence the recording process? 2. Rokon started business in June 1, 2006. Journalize the following transactions in the book of Rokon. Particular Debit Tk Particular Credit Tk Purchase Stock Plant and Machinery Sundry Debtors Return Salary and Allowances Advertisement Insurance Premium Cash in hand 60,000 18,000 40,000 20,000 6,000 10,000 5,000 2,000 5,000 Capital Sales Sundry Creditors Return 50,000 1,00,000 10,000 7,000 Total 1,67,000 Total 1,67,000 June 1, 2006 – Started business with Tk. 5,00,000 June 2, 2006 – Purchased good for cash Tk. 2,00,000 June 5, 2006 – Sold goods to Kawser on credit Tk. 50,000 June 9, 2006 – Sold goods for cash Tk. 1,00,000 June 10, 2006 – Received cash from Kawser Tk. 40,000 June 12, 2006 – Salaries paid Tk. 5,000 June 15, 2006 – Rent received Tk. 4,000 June 20, 2006 – Withdrawn from business for personal use Tk. 3,000. 3. (a) What is ‘consignment’? (b) What do you understand by ‘Del-Credit Commission’? (c) Discuss the differences between ‘Joint Venture’ and ‘consignment’. 4. From the following trial balance of Saif-ul-Islam, prepare ‘trading account’ and ‘profit and loss account’for the year ended 31st December, 2006 and the ‘balance sheet’ as at that date : Adjustments : (i) Closing Stock of Tk 20,000 (ii) Insurance repaid Tk 500 (iii) Depreciation on ‘plant and machinery’ @ 5% (iv) Write off Tk 1,000 as bad debts. 5. (a) What do you mean by ‘share’? (b)What are the differences between ‘share’ and ‘debenture’? (c) Define ‘bonus share’. (d) Under what circumstances and for what purposes the bonus shares are issued? 6. The following is the trial balance of ‘Solimullah & sons Limited’. Particular Debit Taka Credit Taka Stock Purchase and Sale Wages Discount Salaries Rent General Expenses Investment Capital ( 1,000 shares of Tk 10 each) Debtors and Creditors Plant and Machinery Cash in hand and at Bank 7,500 24,500 5,000 700 2,700 1,200 1,800 3,000 5,000 3,000 2,800 45,000 500 10,000 1,700 Total 57,200 57,200 Prepare ‘trading account’, ‘profit and loss account’ and ‘balance sheet’ through the following adjustments : Adjustments : (i) Closing stock of Tk 2,000 (ii) Depreciation on machinery @ 10% (iii) Provide 10% discount on debtors and 5% on creditors (iv) One months rent Tk 500 due. 7. Briefly explain (any two): (a) Del-Credere Commission; (b) GAAP; (c) Public Limited Company; (d) Memorandum Joint Venture A/C; (c) Luca Pacioli. 8. Write short notes on any four of the following: (a) Accounting Cycle; (b) Accounting Concepts; (c) Trial Balance; (d) Business Transactions; (e) Double Entry System; (f) ‘Ordinary Share’ and ‘Preference Share’. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 201 miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h ‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) ÔmiKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm†bÕi msÁv `vI| (L) Kg©Pvix cÖkvm†bi Af¨vMg¸wj cix¶v K‡iv| (M) †Kvb Af¨vMgwU ev¯—‡e me©vwaK cÖ‡qvM‡hvM¨ ? †Zvgvi Dˇii c‡¶ hyw³ `vI| 2| (K) †gavwfwËK wb‡qvM e¨e¯’vi ˆewk󨸇jv Kx Kx ? (L) evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡k GB e¨e¯’vi mxgve×Zvmg~n wPwýZ K‡iv| 3| (K) ÔcÖwk¶YÕ Kx ? (L) wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖwk¶Y eY©bv K‡iv| (M) gvbe m¤ú` Dbœq‡b cÖwk¶†Yi ¸iyZ¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 4| (K) Ôc‡`vbœwZÕ Kx ? (L) ÔˆRô¨ZvÕ Ges Ô†gavÕ – G `ywU bxwZi †KvbwU‡K Zzwg evsjv‡`‡ki wmwfj mvwf©‡m c‡`vbœwZ e¨e¯’vi cÖavb wfwË nIqv DwPZ e‡j g‡b K‡iv ? †Zvgvi Dˇii ¯^c‡¶ hyw³ `vI| 5| (K) Ô†cÖlYvÕ Kx ? (L) Kg©Pvix cÖkvm†b †cÖlYv ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †Kb ? (M) †cÖlYvi ‘X’ I ‘Y’ Z‡Ë¡i Aš—wb©wnZ aviYv¸‡jv cix¶v K‡iv| 6| (K) Ôc‡`i †kªYxKiYÕ Kx ? (L) GKwU msMV‡b c`mg~n †kªYxKi†Y e¨enƒZ c`‡¶cmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 7| (K) Ôwkí we‡ivaÕ Kx ? (L) GKwU wkí msMV‡b we‡iva wb®úwËi Rb¨ e¨enƒZ c×wZmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| (K) ÔKg©Pvix M‡elYvÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? (L) miKvix Kg©Pvix cÖkvm†bi Dbœq‡b M‡elYvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 9| Kg©x e¨e¯’vcbvi Dbœqb wPš—vq Gg. wc. d‡j‡Ui Ae`vb Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 10| UxKv wj‡Lv (†h‡Kvb `yBwU) t (K) gvbe m¤ú` cwiKíbv ; (L) Kg©-we‡k­lY ; (M) ‡K›`ªxq Kg©Pvix `ßi ; (N) k„sLjvg~jK e¨e¯’v| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 201 Public Personnel Administration Full Marks: 100 Time: 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Define ‘public personnel administration’. (b) Examine the approaches to personnel administration. (c) Which approach is most applicable in practice ? Give reasons for your answer. 2. (a) What are the features of merit system of recruitment ? (b) Identify the limitations of this system in developing country like Bangladesh. 3. (a) What is ‘training’? (b) Narrate the different types of training ? (c) Discuss the importance of training in human resource development. 4. (a) What is ‘promotion’? (b) Which of the two principles – ‘seniority’ and ‘merit’ should be the basis of promotion in Bangladesh Civil Service ? Give reasons for your answer. 5. (a) What is ‘motivation’? (b) Why is motivation important in personnel administration ? (c) Examine the assumptions underlying theory ‘X’ and ‘Y’ of motivation. 6. (a) What is classification of ‘position’? (b) Discuss the various steps in classifying positions in an organization. 7. (a) What is ‘industrial dispute’? (b) Discuss the methods used to resolve disputes in an industrial organization. 8. (a) What is meant by ‘personnel research’? (b) Discuss the importance of research in the development of public personnel administration. 9. Discuss the contribution of M. P. Follett to the development of ‘personnel management thought’. 10. Write short notes on any two of the following : (a) Human Resource Planning ; (b) Job Analysis ; (c) Central Personnel Agency ; (d) Disciplinary Action. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm ( m¤§vb ) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 202 miKvix A_©cÖkvmb c~Y©gvb t 100 mgq t 4 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb cvuPwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) cÖkvm‡bi GKwU Dcv`vb wn‡m‡e ‘me©vwaK mvgvwRK myweav’ bxwZwU e¨L¨v K‡iv| (L) GKwU Dbœqbkxj mgv‡Ri Kj¨vY wbwðZKi‡Y me©vwaK mvgvwRK myweav bxwZi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| (K) ÔmiKvix A_© cÖkvmbÕ aviYvwU e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (L) ÔmiKvix A_©e¨e¯’vÕ Ges Ô†emiKvix A_©e¨e¯’vÕi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (M) DbœZ I Dbœqbkxj A_©bxwZ‡Z miKvix A_© cÖkvm†bi f‚wgKv †Kvb& †Kvb& †¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ ? 3| (K) Ô†gvU RvZxq Drcv`bÕ I Ô†gvU †`kR Drcv`bÕ- Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨¸‡jv Kx Kx ? (L) †gvU RvZxq Drcv`†bi ‰ewk󨸇jv Kx Kx ? Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 4| (K) ÔivR¯^ bxwZÕi msÁv `vI| (L) Dbœqbkxj A_©bxwZi cwi‡cw¶‡Z ivR¯^ bxwZi D‡Ïk¨¸‡jv Kx Kx n‡Z cv‡i ? (M) ivR¯^ bxwZ†K cÖfvweZ Kivi nvwZqvi¸‡jv ms‡¶‡c †j‡Lv| 5| (K) ‘miKvix e¨q’ Kx ? (L) miKvix e¨†qi wewfbœ LvZmg~n Kx Kx ? (M) evsjv‡`‡k mv¤úªwZKKv‡j Abyrcv`bkxj Lv‡Z miKvix e¨q e„w×i KviYmg~n wbiƒcY K‡iv| 6| (K) †K›`ªxq e¨vsK wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`k e¨vs†Ki MVb I Kvh©vejx eY©bv K‡iv| (L) Kvh©MZ w`K †_‡K evsjv‡`‡k †K›`ªxq e¨vsK Ges evwYwR¨K e¨vs†Ki cv_©K¨mg~n Kx Kx ? 7| (K) evsjv‡`‡ki Ki KvVv‡gv eY©bv K‡iv| (L) evsjv‡`‡ki Ki e¨e¯’vi cÖavb bxwZ¸‡jv mgv‡jvPbvmn Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| evsjv‡`‡ki miKvix A_© cÖkvm‡bi Dci msm`xq wbqš¿‡Yi cwiwa I mxgve×Zvmg~n g~j¨vqb K‡iv| 9| Òevsjv‡`‡k ev‡RU cÖYqb cÖwµqv AvgjvZvwš¿Kfv‡e cÖYqb Ges ev¯ÍevwqZ Kiv nqÓ- gšÍe¨ K‡iv| 10| UxKv wj‡Lv (†h‡Kvb `yBwU) t (K) ‘gy`ªvùxwZ’ I ‘ivR¯^ bxwZ’ ; (L) AvšÍR©vwZK gy`ªv Znwej ; (M) evsjv‡`‡ki ‘gnv wnmve bxwi¶K I wbqš¿K’ ; (N) ‘e¨q myweav we‡k­lY’| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 202 Public Financial Administration Full Marks : 100 Time : 4 Hours Answer any five of the following questions: 1. (a) Analyze the ‘principle of maximum social advantage’ as a component of financial administration. (b) Narrate the importance of ‘the principle of maximum social advantage’ to ensure the welfare of a developing society. 2. (a) Explain the concept of public financial administration. (b) Discuss the difference between ‘public financial administration’ and ‘private financial administration’. (c) In which fields the role of public financial administration is different among developed and developing economy ? 3. (a) What are the differences between GNP and GDP ? (b) What are characteristics of GNP ? Discuss. 4. (a) Define ‘fiscal policy’. (b) What are the objectives of fiscal policy in the perspective of developing economy ? (c) Write, in brief, the mechanisms which influence the fiscal policy. 5. (a) What is ‘public expenditure’? (b) What are the various sectors of public expenditure ? (c) Identify, in the context of Bangladesh, the factors that account for the growth of public expenditure in unproductive sectors in recent times . 6. (a) Narrate the structure and functions of Bangladesh Bank as a central bank. (b) What is the difference between central bank and commercial bank in Bangladesh from the functional perspective. 7. (a) Describe the tax structure of Bangladesh. (b) Critically discuss the major principles of tax system of Bangladesh. 8. Evaluate the scope and limitations of parliamentary control over public financial administration in Bangladesh. 9. “Budget making process in Bangladesh is bureaucratically formulated and implemented” – comment. 10. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) ‘Inflation’ and ‘Fiscal Policy’. (b) International Monetary Fund; (c) Controller and Auditor General in Bangladesh; (d) Cost-Benefit Analysis. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 203 M‡elYv we`¨v c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| mvgvwRK M‡elYvi ¸i“Z¡ I cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 2| mvgvwRK M‡elYvi DcvË msMÖ‡ni wewfbœ c×wZ ms‡¶‡c Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| mvgvwRK M‡elYvi avcmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 4| (K) cÖkœgvjvi msÁv `vI I cÖKvi‡f` †`LvI| (L) wbgœwjwLZ †h‡Kvb GKwU mgm¨vi Dci 10wU cÖkœ m¤^wjZ GKwU cÖkœgvjv ˆZix K‡iv t (i) wk¶v½‡b mš¿vm ; (ii) ZË¡veavqK miKvi| 5| (K) ÔbgybvqbÕ Kx ? (L) h_vh_ D`vniYmn wewfbœ ai‡Yi Ôm¤¢vebxqZv bgybvqb c×wZÕ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 6| (K) ÔAbygvbÕ Kx ? (L) Abygv‡bi Kvh©vejx eY©bv K‡iv| (M) Abygvb MV‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq bxwZmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 7| ÔM‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`bÕ ˆZixi avcmg~n mwe¯—v‡i Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| UxKv wj‡Lv (†h‡Kvb `yBwU) t (K) cwigvc ; (L) Rwic ; (M) ch©‡e¶Y ; (N) PjK| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 203 Research Methodology Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. Discuss the importance and typology of social research. 2. Discuss, in brief, various methods of data collection in social research. 3. Discuss the steps of social research. 4. (a) Define and classify ‘questionnaire’. (b) Prepare a questionnaire containing at least ten questions on any one of the following problems : (i) Terrorism in educational institutions; (ii) Caretaker government. 5. (a) What is ‘sampling’? (b) Discuss the various probability (random) sampling methods with appropriate examples. 6. (a) What is ‘hypothesis’? (b) Describe the functions of hypothesis. (c) Discuss the principles needed to frame a hypothesis. 7. Describe in detail, the steps required in writing a research report. 8. Write short notes on any two of the following: (a) Measurement; (b) Survey; (c) Observation; (d) Variable. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 204 cwimsL¨vb c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) †jvKcÖkvmb M‡elYvq cwimsL¨v‡bi cÖavb e¨envimg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) Z_¨ivwki ˆjwLK Dc¯’vcb ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? (M) wb‡gœi NUbmsL¨v web¨v‡mi NUbmsL¨v eûfyR, AvqZwPÎ I †hvwRZ NUbmsL¨v †iLv cÖ¯‘Z K‡iv t ‡kªYxe¨vwß 5 – 10 10 – 15 15 – 20 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 NUbmsL¨v 4 7 11 12 7 4 2 2| (K) ÔcwimsL¨vb wb‡ekbÕ Kx ? (L) cwimsL¨vb wb‡ekb cÖ¯‘‡Zi avcmg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (M) 10 †kªYxe¨vwß we‡ePbv K‡i wb‡Pi Z_¨ivwki mvnv‡h¨ GKwU cwimsL¨vb wb‡ekb cÖ¯‘Z K‡iv t 38 23 53 52 27 30 58 25 82 48 45 26 66 18 71 23 79 53 55 37 62 44 94 38 44 24 35 27 22 43 49 51 54 53 56 81 16 53 66 55 92 53 46 61 49 71 21 56 69 69 3| (K) Dcv‡Ëi †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? (L) †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© cwigvcmg~n Kx Kx ? (M) †Kvb GKwU kn‡i 100wU AvevwmK evwoi gvwmK fvov wbgœiƒc t gvwmK fvov (UvKvq) 4000 – 5000 5000 – 6000 6000 – 7000 7000 – 8000 8000 – 9000 9000 – 10000 evwoi msL¨v 10 15 20 30 16 9 web¨vmwUi Mo, ga¨K I cªPziK wbY©q K‡iv| 4| (K) we¯—v‡ii mvaviY cwigvcmg~n Kx Kx ? (L) we¯—v‡ii †Kvb& cwigvcwU m‡e©vËg Ges †Kb ? (M) wb‡gœi mviYx n‡Z cwiwgZ e¨eavb I e¨eavbv¼ wbY©q K‡iv t gRyix (UvKvq) 10 – 20 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 60 – 70 70 – 80 80 – 90 kªwg‡Ki msL¨v 11 19 35 40 52 45 18 10 5| (K) mn-m¤^Ü ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) mn-m¤^Ü mnM r = – 1, 0, + 1 Gi Ae¯’vbmg~n e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (M) cÖ`Ë DcvË n‡Z X – Gi Dci Y -Gi wbf©iv¼ Ges wbf©iY †iLvi mgxKiY wbY©q K‡iv| X 5 8 11 13 16 18 15 20 22 24 Y 6 7 14 15 18 16 16 22 24 25 6| (K) m¤¢vebv Kx ? (L) D`vniYmn m¤¢vebvi †hvM I ¸‡Yi wbq‡gi e¨vL¨v `vI| (M) GKwU _wj‡Z 6wU jvj, 5wU njy`, 4wU mv`v Ges 3wU meyR ej Av‡Q| _wj n‡Z wbwe©Pv‡i 2wU ej †bqv n‡j t (i) 1wU ej mv`v I 1wU ej jvj nIqvi m¤¢vebv KZUzKz ? (ii) 2wU ej jvj nIqvi m¤¢vebv KZ ? 7| (K) h_vh_ D`vniYmn Kvjxb mvwii e¨vL¨v `vI| (L) Kvjxb mvwii wewfbœ Dcv`vb¸wj Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (M) Kvjxb mvwii `xN©‡gqv`x cwigv‡ci †h‡Kvb 2wU c×wZ eY©bv K‡iv| (N) ÔFZzMZ cwieZ©bÕ I ÔPµµwgK n«vm-e„w×Õi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbY©q K‡iv| (O) e¨emvq I A_©‰bwZK Kvjxb mvwii Dcv‡Ë FZzMZ Dcv`vb cwigv‡ci ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| (K) Ôm~PK msL¨vÕ Kx ? (L) ÔDcv`vb Dëv‡bv cix¶vÕ e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (M) cÖ`Ë DcvË n‡Z c¨v‡mi I wdkv‡ii m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i g~j¨ m~PK msL¨v wbY©q K‡iv t cY¨ wfwË ermi PjwZ ermi cwigvY g~j¨ cwigvY g~j¨ A 14 16 16 20 B 8 20 10 24 C 16 18 18 22 D 11 22 22 16 E 16 22 20 23 Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 204 Statistics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Discuss the major uses of statistics in public administration research. (b) What is meant by graphical representation of data ? (c) Make ‘frequency polygon’, ‘histogram’ and ‘cumulative frequency curve’ from the following distribution : Class Interval 5 – 10 10 – 15 15 – 20 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 Frequncy 4 7 11 12 7 4 2 2. (a) What is ‘frequency distribution’ ? (b) Discuss the steps of frequency distribution. (c) Construct a frequency distribution with class interval 10 from the following data : 38 23 53 52 27 30 58 25 82 48 45 26 66 18 71 23 79 53 55 37 62 44 94 38 44 24 35 27 22 43 49 51 54 53 56 81 16 53 66 55 92 53 46 61 49 71 21 56 69 69 3. (a) What is meant by ‘central tendency by data’? (b) What are the main measures of central tendency ? (c) The ditribution of monthly rents of residential houses in a certain city is as follows : Monthly Rent (Tk.) 4000 – 5000 5000 – 6000 6000 – 7000 7000 – 8000 8000 – 9000 9000 – 10000 Number of Houses 10 15 20 30 16 9 Calculate the ‘mean’, ‘median’ and ‘mode’ of the distribution. 4. (a) What are the general measures of of dispertion ? (b) Which one is the best measure of dispertion and why ? (c) Calculate ‘standard deviation’ and ‘coefficient of variation’ from the following data : Wage (Tk.) 10 – 20 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 60 – 70 70 – 80 80 – 90 No. of Workers 11 19 35 40 52 45 18 10 5. (a) What is meant by ‘coefficient of correlation’ ? (b) Discuss the situations when the coefficient of correlation r = -1, 0, +1. (c) From the following data, find the coefficient of regression and regression equation of Y on X. X 5 8 11 13 16 18 15 20 22 24 Y 6 7 14 15 18 16 16 22 24 25 6. (a) What is ‘probability’? (b) Explain addition and multiplication theories of probability with example. (c) A beg contains 6 red, 5 yellow, 4 white and 3 green balls. If two balls are drawn at random from the beg : (i) What is the probability of getting 1 white ball and 1 red ball? (ii) What is the probability of getting 2 red balls? 7. (a) Explain ‘time-series’ with suitable example. (b) Discuss the different components of a time-series. (c) Discuss any two methods of delamining the trend of a time-series. (d) Distinguish between ‘reasonal variation’ and ‘cyclical fluctuation’. (e) Discuss the importance of measurement of reasonal component for business and economic time-series data. 8. (a) What is ‘index number’? (b) Explain ‘factor reversal test’. (c) Compute price index number from the following data using Pasache’s and Fisher’s index number formula : Commodity Base Year Current Year Quantity Price Quantity Price A 14 16 16 20 B 8 20 10 24 C 16 18 18 22 D 11 22 22 16 E 16 22 20 23 wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 205 ivóª wPš—v c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) ivR‰bwZK `k©b I ivR‰bwZK Z‡Ë¡i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ? (L) MÖxK mgv‡R `vk©wbK I mwd÷ ej‡Z Kv‡`i †evSv‡bv n‡Zv ? 2| (K) †c­‡Uvi Av`k© iv‡óªi wk¶v cwiKíbv eY©bv K‡iv| (L) GwUi mv‡_ Gwi÷U‡ji cv_©K¨ †Kv_vq ? Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 3| (K) Gwi÷Uj wK‡mi wfwˇZ miKv‡ii †kªYxwefvM K‡i‡Qb ? (L) †Kb wZwb ÔMYZ‡š¿Õi PvB‡Z ÔcwjwUÕ‡K mg_©b K‡i‡Qb ? Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 4| (K) †gwKqv‡fjxi ivR‰bwZK Ae`vb Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| (L) †Kb Zvu‡K AvaywbK ivRbxwZi RbK ejv nq ? 5| Rb jK-‡K †Kb AvaywbK MYZ‡š¿i RbK ejv nq ? hyw³ †`LvI| 6| Bgv‡gi (ivóª cÖavb) Dchy³Zv, wbe©vPb cÖwµqv I KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© Bgvg Mv¾vjxi (in:) gZvgZ Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 7| e¨w³ ¯^vaxbZv m¤ú‡K© †R. Gm. wgj – Gi aviYv Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 8| (K) i“‡kvi ÔmvaviY B”QvÕ Kx ? (L) ÔmvaviY B”QvÕ Ges ÔmK‡ji B”QvÕ – Gi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 205 Political Thought Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) What is the difference between ‘political philosophy’ and ‘political thought’? (b) Who mean the ‘philosophers’ and ‘Sophists’ in Greek society? 2. (a) Describe the education plan of Plato in his ideal state. (b) In what way it differs with that of Aristotle? Discuss. 3. (a) In what basis Aristotle classified government ? (b) Why did he support ‘polity’ than ‘democracy’? 4. (a) Discuss Machiavelli’s contribution to politics. (b) Why is he called ‘the father of modern politics’? Discuss. 5. Why is John Locke called the father of modern democracy ? Give reasons. 6. Discuss the views of Imam Ghazzali (Rh:) regarding the ‘Immam’s (head of the state) qualifications, selection process and reponsibilities. 7. Discuss J. S. Mill’s concept of ‘individual liberty’. 8. (a) What is Rousseau’s ‘general will’ ? (b) Show the distinguish between ‘general will’ and ‘will of all’. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG 206 mvgwóK A_©bxwZ c~Y©gvb t 50 mgq t 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb 4 wU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) aª“c`x g‡W‡ji cÖavb ΓwU¸‡jv wPwýZ K‡iv| (L) †Kvb& Ae¯’vq mvgwMÖK Pvwn`v †iLv m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c Dj¤^ Ges m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c f~wg A‡¶i mv‡_ mgvš—ivj n‡q _v‡K ? (M) A_©‰bwZK m¤ú‡`i c~Y© wb‡qvM AwR©Z nIqvi c~‡e©B wK KL‡bv †Kvb A_©bxwZi c‡¶ fvimvg¨ Ae¯’v AR©b Kiv m¤¢e ? e¨vL¨v K‡iv| 2| (K) RvZxq Avq MYbvq ˆØZ MYbv mgm¨v wKfv‡e D™¢e nq ? (L) mij Kxbmxq g‡W‡j RvZxq Avq wba©viY cÖwµqvwU †`LvI| (M) wb‡Pi Z_¨¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i Ôe¨w³MZ e¨q‡hvM¨ AvqÕ †ei K‡iv t (i) †gvU Af¨šÍixY Drcv`‡bi cwigvY = 5677.5 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (ii) we‡`k †_‡K cÖvß bxU DcKi‡Yi g~‡j¨i cwigvY = 17.5 wgwjqb Wjvi (iii) g~ja‡bi ¶q-¶wZRwbZ e¨‡qi cwigvY = 626.1 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (iv) c‡iv¶ K‡ii cwigvY = 475.2 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (v) RbM‡Yi wbKU miKvix I e¨emvwqK cÖwZôv‡bi wewbg‡qi cwigvY = 771.1 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (vi) K‡cv©‡iU gybvdvi cwigvY = 346.3 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (vii) mvgvwRK wbivcËvq e¨‡qi cwigvY = 528.8 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (viii) †kqv‡ii gybvdvi cwigvY = 137 wgwjqb Wjvi ; (ix) e¨w³MZ Ki Ges Ki-ewn©f~Z e¨‡qi cwigvY = 618.7 wgwjqb Wjvi| 3| (K) ¸YK Kx ? (L) ¸YK cÖwµqvq wKfv‡e RvZxq Avq e„w× cvq ? (M) miKvi Ô‡_vK& KiÕ Ges ÔmiKvix e¨qÕ DfqB 100 UvKv cwigv‡Y e„w× Ki‡j fvimvg¨ RvZxq Av†qi Dci Kx cÖfve co‡e ? (Ab¨vb¨ Ae¯’v AcwiewZ©Z) 4| (K) ivR¯^ bxwZi nvwZqvi¸‡jv Kx Kx ? (L) A_©bxwZi mvgwMÖK Pvwn`vi Dci miKvix e¨q e„w×i cÖfve †`LvI| (M) †`LvI †h, ivR¯^ bxwZ D”P Drcv`b ¯’‡ii Zzjbvq wbgœ Drcv`b ¯Í‡i AwaKZi Kvh©Ki| 5| (K) Zvij¨ dvu` Kx ? (L) Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq A_©bxwZi mvgwMªK Pvwn`v †iLv ‡`L‡Z †Kgb nq ? (M) Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq K¬¨vwmK¨vj g‡Wj wKfv‡e m½wZnxb nq ? (N) Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq Kxbmxq g‡Wj †Kb m½wZnxb nq bv ? (O) wc¸ wKfv‡e †`Lvb Zvij¨ dvu` Ae¯’vq K¬¨vwmK¨vj g‡WjI m½wZnxb nq bv ? 6| Franco Modigliani Ges Albert Ando KZ©„K cÖ`Ë †fvM I m‡qi Rxeb Pµ Dcwm×všÍwU Av‡jvPbv K‡iv| 7| (K) cu~wRi cÖvwš—K `¶Zv I wewb‡qv‡Mi cÖvwš—K `¶Zvi cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k K‡iv| (L) wewb‡qv‡Mi Kvg¨¯—i wKfv‡e wba©vwiZ nq Zv wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v K‡iv| 8| msw¶ß UxKv wj‡Lv t (K) µvDwWs AvDU ; (L) wgZe¨wqZvi AvcvZ we‡ivwaZv ; (M) ivR¯^bxwZ-gy`ªvbxwZ mswgkªY ; (N) wi‡qj e¨vjvÝ B‡d±| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 206 Macro Economics Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Identify the principal drawbacks of the ‘classical model’. (b) Under what circumstances the aggregate supply curve is completely vertical and completely horizontal ? (c) Is it possible for an economy to attain the state of equilibrium before it attains full employment of economic resources ? Explain. 2. (a) How does the problem ‘double-counting’ arise in national income counting ? (b) Show the determination of national income process in simple Keynsian model. (c) Considering the following information, find out ‘disposal personal income’ : (i) Gross domestic product = 5677.5 billion dollers ; (ii) Net factor payments from abroad = 17.5 billion dollers ; (iii) Capital consumption allowance = 626.1 billion dollers ; (iv) Indirect taxes = 475.2 billion dollers ; (v) Government and business transfers to persons = 771.1 billion dollers ; (vi) Corporate profits = 346.3 billion dollers ; (vii) Social security contributions = 528.8 billion dollers ; (viii) Dividends = 137.0 billion dollers ; (ix) Personal tax and non-tax payments = 618.7 billion dollers. 3. (a) What is ‘multiplier’ ? (b) How does national income increase through multiplier process ? (c) What will be the impact on equilibrium national income if government raises both, autonomous tax revenue and government expenditure by 100 Tk ? (Given ceteris paribus) 4. (a) What are the instruments of fiscal policy ? (b) Show the impact of increase in government expenditure on economy’s aggregate demand curve . (c) Show that, fiscal policy is more effective in lower output level than higher output level. 5. (a) What is ‘liquidity trap’? (b) How does aggregate demand curve of economy look like in liquidity trap situation ? (c) How is classical model inconsistent in liqidity trap situation ? (d) Why is Keynsian model not inconsistent in liquidity trap situation ? (e) How did Pigoue shows that classical model is also not incocsistent in liquidity trap situation ? 6. Explain the ‘life-cycle hypothesis’ of consumption and saving expounded by ‘Franco Modigliani’and ‘Albert Ando’. 7. (a) Distinguish between ‘Marginal Efficiency of Capital’ (MEC) and ‘Marginal Efficiency of Investment’ (MEI). (b) Explain with diagram, how an optimum level of investment is determined. 8. Write short notes on any two of the following : (a) Crowding Out ; (b) Paradox of Thrift ; (c) The Monetary Fiscal-Policy Fix ; (d) Real Balance Effect. wØZxq el© we,Gm,Gm (m¤§vb) cix¶v 2005 ‡jvKcÖkvmb wcG-207 wnmveweÁvb cwiwPwZ c~Y©gvb : 50 mgq : 3 N›Uv ‡h‡Kvb PviwU cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| 1| (K) wnmve weÁv†bi msÁv `vI| (L) wnmve weÁv†bi ¸i“Z¡ eY©bv K‡iv| (M) wnmve Pµ ej‡Z Kx †evS ? Gi avc¸‡jv e¨vL¨v K‡iv| 2| Rbve †gvi‡k` 2005 mv‡ji 1jv Ryb Zvwi‡L e¨emvq ïi“ K‡ib| wb‡Pi †jb‡`b¸‡jv †eMg †gvi‡k‡`i eB‡Z Rv‡e`vfy³ K‡iv| Ryb 1, 2005 – 1,00,000 UvKv w`‡q e¨emv ïi“ K‡ib| Ryb 3, 2005 – bM‡` 50,000 UvKvi cY¨ µq| Ryb 5, 2005 – KvImv‡ii wbKU †_‡K evKx‡Z 10,000 UvKvi cY¨ µq| Ryb 7, 2005 – bM‡` cY¨ weµq 40,000 UvKv| Ryb 9, 2005 – wRqvi wbKU evKx‡Z cY¨ weµq 15,000 UvKv| Ryb 13, 2005 – wRqvi KvQ †_‡K bM‡` cvIqv †Mj 10,000 UvKv| Ryb 15, 2005 – †eZb cÖ`vb 4,000 UvKv Ryb 18, 2005 – Kwgkb cÖvwß 500 UvKv| Ryb 25, 2005 – e¨w³MZ cÖ‡qvR‡b e¨emv †_‡K 1,000 UvKv D‡Ëvjb| 3| (K) †iIqvwgj ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (L) †iIqvwg†j †Kvb& ai‡Yi fyj aiv c‡o bv ? (M) `yÕZidv `vwLjv c×wZi g~jbxwZ e¨vL¨v K‡iv| 4| Rbve ‡ZŠwn`-Dj&-Bmjv‡gi wb‡gœv³ †iIqvwgj n‡Z 2005 mv‡ji 30†k Ryb Zvwi‡L mgvß eQ‡ii µq-weµq wnmve, jvf-¶wZ wnmve Ges Dc‡iv³ Zvwi‡Li w¯’wZcÎ ˆZix K‡iv t ‡iIqvwgj weeiY ‡WweU UvKv weeiY ‡µwWU UvKv hš¿cvwZ ———————- gRyZ cY¨ ——————– µq ————————– wewea ‡`bv`vi —————- AvmevecÎ ——————- ewng~©Lx cwienb ————–fvov I Ki ——————- exgv wcÖwgqvg —————– ‡eZb ———————— bM` Znwej —————— 30,000 15,000 82,000 10,600 5,000 500 3,000 700 20,000 6,000 g~jab ———————— wewea cvIbv`vi ————– weµq ———————— evÆv ————————– 72,000 10,000 1,00,000 800 me©‡gvU 1,72,800 me©‡gvU 1,72,800 mgš^qmg~n t (i) mgvwß gRyZ cY¨ = 15,000 UvKv| (ii) 500 UvKv KyFY wnmv‡e ev` w`‡Z n‡e| (iii) AwMªg cÖ`Ë exgv = 500 UvKv| (iv) AePq t (K) Avmevec‡Îi Dci evrmwiK kZKiv 5 fvM, (L) hš¿cvwZi Dci evrmwiK kZKiv 10 fvM| 5| (K) Pvjvb I weµ‡qi g‡a¨ Zzwg wKfv‡e cv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki‡e ? (L) bgybv Pvjvb, weµ‡qi wnmve Ges SzuwK evn‡Ki `¯‘wii msÁv `vI| 6| (K) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvbx I cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvbxi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k K‡iv| (L) Awanv‡i †kqvi wewj I Aenv‡i †kqvi wewj ej‡Z Kx †evS ? (M) Awanvi I Aenvi wnmve eB‡Z wKfv‡e †`Lv‡bv nq ? (N) cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k K‡iv t (i) mvaviY †kqvi I AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi ; (ii) †kqvi I FYcÎ| 7| w` P›`bvBk eªv`vm© †Kv¤úvbx wjwg‡UW – Gi †iIqvwgj wbgœiƒc t †iIqvwgj 31†k wW‡m¤^i, 2005 weeiY ‡WweU UvKv ‡µwWU UvKv gRyZ cY¨ (1-1-05) ————————– Kªq I weKªq ———————————– Drcv`b gRywi ———————————evÆv ——————————————-†eZb —————————————–mvaviY LiP ———————————– g~jab (10 UvKv nv‡i 2,000wU †kqvi) ——— †`bv`vi I cvIbv`vi —————————KjKâv I hš¿cvwZ —————————-bM` Znwej ———————————– KzFY —————————————— mvaviY mwÂwZ ——————————— miKvix KvM‡R 5% wewb‡qvM ——————- mybvg —————————————— Abv`vqx Znwej ——————————– AwMÖg Zje ———————————— 10,000 30,000 8,500 800 3,600 1,800 10,000 4,500 5,500 600 4,000 5,000 600 53,500 500 20,000 5,000 5,000 900 me©‡gvU 84,900 84,900 ermiv‡š— wb‡gœv³ mgš^qmg~n we‡ePbvc~e©K µq-weµq wnmve, jvf-¶wZ wnmve Ges D³ Zvwi‡L †Kv¤úvbxi GKwU w¯’wZcÎ ˆZix K‡iv t (i) mgvcbx gRy` cY¨ 12,000 UvKvq g~j¨vqb Kiv n‡jv ; (ii) wewb‡qv‡Mi Dci my` m¤ú~Y© eQ‡ii Rb¨ Abv`vqx i‡q‡Q ; (iii) KjKâvi Dci 10% AePq avh© K‡iv| 8| UxKv wj‡Lv (†h‡Kvb PviwU) t (K) wnmve msµvš— aviYv ; (L) wnmve msµvš— cÖ_v ; (M) wnmve mgxKiY ; (N) †iIqvwgj ; (O) FYcÎ ; (P) wnmve| Second Year BSS Honors Exam 2005 Public Administration PA 207 Introduction to Accounting Full Marks: 50 Time: 3 Hours Answer any four of the following questions: 1. (a) Define the term ‘accounting’. (b) State the importance of ‘accounting’. (c) What do you mean by ‘accounting cycle’? Discuss its different scopes. 2. Mr Humayun started business at June 1, 2005. Journalize the following transactions in the book of Mrs Humayun : June 01, 2005 – Started business with Tk. 1,00,000 June 03, 2005 – Purchased goods for cash Tk. 50,000 June 05, 2005 – Bought goods from Rokon on credit Tk. 10,000 June 07, 2005 – Sold goods for cash Tk. 40,000 June 09, 2005 – Sold goods to Osman on credit Tk. 15,000 June 13, 2005 – Received cash from Osman Tk. 10,000 June 15, 2005 – Salaries paid Tk. 4,000 June 18, 2005 – Received commission Tk. 500 June 25, 2005 – Withdrawn from business for personal issue Tk. 1,000. 3. (a) What do you mean by ‘trial balance’? (b) What errors are not detected in trial balance ? (c) Explain ‘the principle double-entry system’. Particular Debit Tk. Particular Credit Tk. Plant and machinery —— Stock ———————— Purchase ——————– Sundry debtors ————- Furniture ——————– Carriage outwards ——— Rent and taxes ————- Insurance Premium ——– Salaries ———————- Cash in hand ————— 30,000 15,000 82,000 20,600 5,000 500 3,000 700 20,000 6,000 Capital ———————– Sundry creditors ———– Sales ————————- Discounts ——————– 72,000 10,000 1,00,000 800 Total 1,82,800 Total 1,82,800 4. From the following trial balance, prepare ‘trading account’, ‘profit and loss account’ for the year ended 30th June, 2005 and ‘the balance sheet’ as at that date of Mr Abul Kashem. Adjustments : Particular Debit Taka Credit Taka Stock on 01-01-2005 ———————– Purchase and sales ————————– Manufacturing wage ———————— Discount ————————————– Salary —————————————– General expenses —————————- Share capital (2000 shares of Tk. 10 each) Debtors and creditors ———————– Plat and machinery ————————- Cash balance ——————————— Bad debtors ———————————- 5% investment in govt. paper ————- General reserve —————————— Goodwill ————————————- Calls-in-arrear ——————————- Calls-in-advance —————————- 10,000 30,000 8,500 800 3,600 1,800 10,000 4,500 5,500 600 4,000 5,000 600 53,500 500 20,000 5,000 5,000 900 Total 84,900 84,900 1. Closing stock of Tk. 15,000. 2. Write off Tk. 500 as bad debts. 3. Insurance prepaid was Tk. 100. 4. Depreciations : (i) Furniture @ 5% p.a. (ii) Plant and Machinery @ 10% p. a. 5. (a) How would you distinguish between ‘consignment’ and ‘sales’? (b) Define ‘pro forma invoice’, ‘account sale’ and ‘del credit commission’. 6. (a) Distinguish between ‘public limited company’ and ‘private limited company’. (b) What do you mean by issuing shares and debentures at a premium or at a discount ? (c) How is premium or discount treated in books of account ? (d) Distinguish between : (i) ‘Ordinary share’ and ‘Preference share’ ; (ii) ‘Shares’ and ‘Debentures’. 7. The trial balance of ‘The Chandanaish Brothers Company Limited’ was as follows : Trial Balance 31st December, 2005 After considering the following, prepare ‘trading account’, ‘profit and loss account’ for theyear ended and a ‘balance sheet’ as at that date : 1. Closing stock valued at Tk. 12,000 2. Interest on investment accounted for the whole year 3. Charge depreciation on plant and machinery @ 10% 8. Write short notes on any four of the following : (a) Accounting concepts ; (b) Accounting conventions ; (c) Accounting equation ; (d) Trial balance ; (e) Debentures ; (f) Accounts.

PROBLEMS OF E-GOVERNANCE IN BANGLADESH

PROBLEMS OF E-GOVERNANCE IN BANGLADESH AND POSSIBLE STEPS TOWARDS SOLUTIONS Prepared by SASM Taifur with research assistance from Mridul Chowdhury Presented at Brainstorming Seminar on “Road Map for ICT Development in Bangladesh” Dated 30th June, 2003 Venue: IDB Bhaban Abstract This paper tackles the issues and challenges that Bangladesh is currently facing with regards to implementation of e-Governance. Although it emphasizes on the problems stifling the growth of e-Governance, the objective is to present the hindrances in the context of what needs to be done to deal with the current challenges. The recommendations are presented in terms of specific steps to bring into perspective the priorities that may be considered while making strategic plans for national level e-Governance implementation. The paper begins by clarifying the concepts related to e-Governance and by shedding light on popular misconceptions that are often causes of misdirected conclusions. Table of Contents 1. Introduction ……………… 3 2. Conceptualization of e-Governance ……………. 3 2.1. What e-Governance is Not? ……………… 3 2.2. Distinction between e-Governance and e-Government ……………… 3 2.3. Defining e-Government ……………… 5 3. Selected e-Governance Projects in Bangladesh ……………… 5 4. Challenges of e-Governance ……………… 6 4.1. Challenges of G2G/e-Government ……………… 6 4.2. Challenges of G2B and G2C ……………… 8 4.3. General Challenges of e-Governance ……………… 9 5. Possible Steps Towards Solutions ……………… 10 5.1. Recommendation for G2G ……………… 10 5.2. Recommendations for G2B and G2C ……………… 12 5.3. General Recommendations for e-Governance ……………… 13 5.4. e-Government Implementation Strategy ……………… 14 1. INTRODUCTION With the onset of information revolution, many developing countries have looked at IT as a possible new tool to solve age-old problems of poverty, bad governance, and sluggish economic growth. While the developed countries have been able to benefit greatly from the wide use of IT, many developing countries are still grasping to make sense of how IT fits into their problems. The trend is true in the case of e-Governance also. In Bangladesh, e-Governance has been talked about a lot, some government offices have even taken innovative steps towards certain e-Government projects. Since this is a new concept for government officials who are used to familiar methods of work, the growth of e-Governance is met with resistance and fear, among other infrastructural problems. But the good news is that the government is taking e-Governance very seriously. The national ICT Task Force headed by the Honorable Prime Minister herself has put great emphasis on identifying challenges in the implementation of nation-wide e-Governance and on initiating pilot projects in various sectors of the government through a project called the Support to ICT Task Force (SICT). It is being implemented under the Ministry of Planning. Also, the Government of Bangladesh is also getting substantial foreign cooperation in terms of financial assistance and technical collaboration for realization of e-Governance at a national scale. 2. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF E-GOVERNANCE Before moving on to defining what e-Governance comprises of, it is important to realize what e-Governance is not. Misconceptions lead to baseless fear and unfounded resistance. That is why it is important to first realize what e-Governance is not. 2.1. What e-Governance is Not? a) It is not about changing government processes and inter-agency or inter-personal relationships b) It is not limited to computerization of government offices c) It is not just about being able to type documents using computers d) It does not put government security and confidentiality at risk 2.2 Distinction Between e-Governance and e-Government e-Governance is composed of three major components: 1. G2C (Government-to-Citizen) involves interaction of individual citizens with the government. Examples include payment of utility bills or downloading government forms from the Internet. The e-Citizen Portal of Singapore is one of the most highly acclaimed G2C sites. The portal has relevant information organized according to topics and has specific entry points for teenagers, working adults, senior citizens and foreigners. It also has scope for citizen feedback and questions. Fig 1: e-Citizen Portal of Singapore 2. G2B (Government-to-Business) involves interaction of business entities with the government. Examples include corporate tax filing or government procurement process through the Internet. One primary success story of online government procurement is Malaysia’s e-Prohelan web-site which has about 3,500 government procurement centers and about 30,000 suppliers. 3. G2G (Government-to-Government) involves interaction among government officials, whether within a government office or within government offices. Examples include using e-mail for internal government communication or a customized software for tracking progress of government projects. A popular G2G service is e-Police System in Karnataka, India, which has an electronic searchable database of various types of police records. It is G2G which is generally referred to as being e-Government. Therefore, e-Government may be perceived as being a sub-component of overall e-Governance. Although it needs to be kept in mind that in some literature, the terms ‘e-Government’ and ‘e-Governance’ are used interchangeably. In this paper, e-Government refers to G2G only, not the other components of e-Governance, namely G2C and G2B. 2.3 Defining e-Government e-Government is about automation of existing every-day government activities. Some examples include: (a) day-to-day communication such as notification of a meeting time; (b) accessing documents such as meeting minutes, policy documents; (c) accessing needed data such as export growth of a certain commodity; (d) tracking progress of government projects; (e) disseminating policies and strategies such as laws passed at the Parliament. 3. SELECTED E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN BANGLADESH Some of the major e-government projects in Bangladesh are briefly outlined below. This is by no means a comprehensive list. Ministry of Finance: has customized software for budget planning, sensitivity analysis, impact analysis, financial projections and various reports National Board of Revenue: Much of the activities of NBR has been computerized. NBR is computerizing the revenue budget procedure. Ministry of Science and ICT: Creating web-sites containing information about various ministries Ministry of Communication: Provides online searchable database of contractors, tenders. They have also created a Project Monitoring System for tracking progress of projects. They have databases of 9,011 bridge structures and 20,000 km roads Bangladesh Planning Commission: Creating software for interfacing between development and revenue budget. The IT system at Bangladesh Plannin Commission has the following features: o File sharing facilities through LAN o Video Conferencing o Electronic Notice Board o Digital Library containing policies of Bangladesh in searchable format, minutes of meetings, other useful documents etc. o ADP database facilities o Software for tracking movement of files Fig 2: Internal Web-site of Bangladesh Planning Commission 4. CHALLENGES OF E-GOVERNANCE In this section, it is important to treat e-Government and G2B/C separately since the problems are largely distinct. G2G provides foundation for a more coordinated approach towards G2C and G2B, which is why the initial emphasis should be on G2G. The government offices themselves should internally prepared first before offering its services to the public through electronic means. We will deal with each following issue by summarizing the current status and then indicating the challenges associated with the issue. 4.1 Challenges of G2G/e-Government: Inadequate ICT Infrastructure within the government: Most ministries have a largely inadequate number of working computers. Very few government offices have their computers connected to the Internet. Even fewer have internal networks. However, it is also true that a number of government offices have computers that remain almost completely unused due to lack of integrated planning. Inadequate access to ICT by government officials: It is generally the case that computers in government offices generally find their way into the offices of the high-level officials. Sometimes it is seen that they possess more than one computer coming from different externally-funded projects. The desk level officers generally are not considered for access to computers despite the fact that interest about ICTs and ability to learn new technologies are higher among younger officers than older. Computers have sadly become somewhat of a status symbol in government offices. Awareness of government officials about ICT: More than anything else, it is the mindset of government officials that poses the biggest bottleneck to e-Government. There are a number of reasons why they resist the use of computers beyond usual typing of letters and documents. Some of the primary reasons are mentioned: (1) they are resistant to any kind of change in their familiar working environment; (2) they fear that computerization of different government activities may make some people redundant; (3) they think that computers are meant for low-level typist kind of work. Non-acceptability of IT systems: It is often seen that even after an IT system is implemented in a government office, it becomes hard for government officials to convince them to use it. Besides the general lack of awareness about ICTs and the fears discussed earlier, some other factors also play a part in their non-acceptability of IT systems. They fear important data getting lost or they are doubtful about the security features of computers. Lack of incentive structure for government officials: In the private sector, it is seen that people skilled in the use of IT are generally valued more than a counterpart who is not as IT proficient. In the government, however, there is no such system of discriminatory valuation of personnel. As a consequence, there is not enough of an incentive for government officials to become IT savvy. The use of IT is mostly self-motivated and a matter of individual free choice. Lack of adequate training programs: Many e-Government or computerization projects suffer gravely from lack of adequate training programs. Training is of vital necessity in familiarizing users with computers and breaking their fears. Some officials go through unplanned ‘IT Training’, often in another country, and then come back not getting any scope for utilizing his/her newly gathered knowledge of IT and forgetting it all in due time. The training programs are mostly not need-based and arranged at arbitrary periods, not during the implementation phase of an e-Government project. Lack of reliable maintenance: Another significant problem is that generally there is no in-house maintenance personnel. It is of vital necessity that computers gets fixed as soon as they malfunction or users very easily lose confidence over IT systems. Most offices have contracts with local hardware companies for maintenance, but their services are often not immediate. Lack of sustainability of IT Systems: Almost all e-Government projects are funded through external sources, primarily foreign funds. This brings about a very vulnerable situation with regards to the sustainability of these projects. As soon as the external fund dries up, it is often seen that there is no fund left even to buy printer paper. As a result of this, there is a lot of hardware sitting in government offices unused as memories of a bygone project. Frequent, unpredictable transfer of government officials: Another major problem to popularizing e-Government in an office is that government officials get frequently and unpredictably transferred. It is seen that IT systems are often dependent on one or two IT champions. As soon as they are transferred, no one remains to take their position. Lack of ownership of IT systems: A direct result of the system of government transfers is that there is great unwillingness to take ownership of IT-related projects. If hardware and IT systems remain unused, there is no one to take responsibility and encourage others. There is currently no government structure in place to create this ownership of e-Government at the level of individual offices. Lack of Bangla standardization: Currently, there is no standardization for use of Bangla in the electronic format. Different people use different fonts, often resulting in documents not opening in someone else’s computer. Another major issue is that none of these fonts maintain the international standard – UNICODE – as a result of which Bangla content cannot be put up on the Internet using these fonts. Bangla documents now have to be uploaded on the Web as files only. 4.2 Challenges of G2B and G2C ICT infrastructure across the nation: Bangladesh’s ICT infrastructure is still quite underdeveloped. The international submarine cable installation has significantly been delayed, despite the keen necessity of an optical fiber link with global network. This delay has caused a difficulty of setting up Internet Exchange (IX) in Bangladesh, as establishment of IX is a must from the viewpoints of the efficient Internet connection and the national security. However, there is a good progress of digitalization of network for narrowband service. Construction of DDN (Digital Data Network) is smoothly on-going throughout the country, including digitalization by using optical fiber cables for backbone network and junction network in the city areas. This development will cater to the demands for the time being. Bangladesh has also joined the submarine cable network consortium which will link Bangladesh with Southeast Asia, Middle East and Western Europe (SEA-ME-WE). The SEA-ME-WE 4 is scheduled to be operational by the first quarter of 2004. Access to ICT by citizens: Bangladesh has a very low level of Internet and PC penetration standing at 0.04% and 0.09% respectively, according to a global IT study conducted by Harvard University, USA. There are no public places that allow access to the Internet at low cost. In such a scenario, it is a matter of great concern how people would get G2C services even if they were offered publicly. Access to ICTs by businesses: It is mostly the larger businesses in Bangladesh that have computers. Very few among these have connectivity to the Internet. Under such circumstances, many businesses may not be able to participate in online tenders or application procedures. Public Awareness about ICTs: Although there is much hype about IT among the younger generation, there is not a high level of awareness among the general public about how ICTs may be useful to their lives. Also, there is cultural inhibition about the use of PCs in this country. From a cultural context, people are generally not familiar with the concept of using computers. ICTs are still generally perceived to be a thing for the rich and the elite. As a result, there is no demand or pressure from the public for service delivery through the use of ICTs. 4.3 General Challenges of e-Governance Lack of necessary regulatory/legal framework: The regulatory/legal framework in Bangladesh has not yet been modernized to accommodate the growing needs of the electronic world. Still, in government offices, an e-mail has no official value and cannot be legally considered an acceptable mode of communication. There are no laws to protect against cyber-crime, neither are there any laws for electronic authentication. Inadequate human resource capacity: For a country of more than 130 million people, the number of IT-trained people in the country is meager with about 1,630 incoming students at public universities, 2,370 at private universities and 1,120 at polytechnics. On top of that, most of the well-trained IT graduates of the country leave since there is little scope for them in Bangladesh in terms of professional development. Preparedness of local software companies: Most local software companies still have not developed the level of expertise or professionalism needed to handle large-scale integrated e-Government projects. Although the scenario is rapidly changing in terms of needed technical expertise, the companies are still lagging behind in terms of professionalism and experienced management. Supply of electricity across the nation: With about 30% of the population of Bangladesh having access to electricity, the question of providing access to computers to a large section of the population seems like a two-step problem. Even the fortunate 30% has to suffer daily power cuts. Since there are yet no low-cost methods of running computers without electricity, the issue of electricity has to be solved before a widespread dissemination of ICTs is possible. High-cost, low-reliability of Internet access: Internet access cost in Bangladesh is very high and highly unreliable. There are virtually no dial-up options outside major cities since long distance calls are exorbitantly expensive. Internet access and availability of PCs are disproportionately concentrated in Dhaka. Most ISPs are dependent on VSAT transmission and the bandwidths being used varies from 64Kbps to 4Mbps. 60 percent ISPs are between 128Kbps and 1Mbps in this concern. This is far below what is required even by current demand. Current situation of dialup Internet connection is rather poor. Connection over 21Kbps to 31Kbps is the speed in home use. 5. POSSIBLE STEPS TOWARDS SOLUTION 5.1 Recommendations for G2G Build ICT Infrastructure throughout the government: Investment should be made on building ICT infrastructure throughout the government, keeping in mind that the returns from such investment will be long-term. Stand-alone computers (i.e. those that are not connected in a network) are not very useful for e-Government. There should be plans for computers to be connected internally in offices through LAN, then inter-connected with other relevant offices through WAN. Eventually the network needs to extend to local-government level. It is important to recognize that the savings in time and money from e-Government will be realized gradually. No overnight returns should be expected. Stress on awareness before training: One of the primary reasons why government officials resist the use of IT lies in the way the training programs are structured. The typical training programs introduce government officials to the world of IT through programs such as Microsoft Word, thus throwing them into a confusion about what computers are really about and how it will benefit them. Since most officials do not need to type documents themselves, they cannot relate to the computers as far as their daily office work is concerned. These IT training programs should be re-oriented so that in the first classes they are introduced to the concepts of how computers may make their work more efficient. The training programs should stress on awareness about the potential of IT in government rather than concentrate too much on teaching officials how to type. And more importantly, there is not much typing involved in most of the customized e-Government software. The training programs should concentrate on creating a mental framework towards IT, not on physical skills in using the keyboard. Provide networked computers to mid-to-lower level officers as well as high-level officers: The practice of providing computers to only high-level officials needs to be reconsidered. It is the younger officials who are more enthusiastic about ICTs and, more likely to find more creative use of computers and even train themselves in basic handling of computers. Mid-to-lower level officers should be given access to computers. This would be a good way of investing into the future, of preparing the government officers who will take the lead in the future. Create incentive structure for use of IT: There should be some kind of incentive structure for the promoters of IT in the government. Recognition or award from the Prime Minister or the President may be a good way of starting a practice of appreciating the work of IT champions in the government. Give importance to regular training: There should be planned training programs to orient officers for using computers and more importantly, to develop awareness about the potential of IT. Without adequate and timely training and awareness programs, e-Government projects are likely to fail no matter how much the investment. Make plans for reliable maintenance: There should be a process to have 24 hr., and immediate maintenance, without which critical e-Government projects should not be undertaken. It is also vital to maintain confidence of users. The maintenance work should be ideally outsourced since the current government structure does not allow internal IT maintenance team. Updating of database: There should also be a process for regular updating of data since almost all e-Government projects involve the storage and retrieval of huge amounts of data. An outdated database is worse or potentially more dangerous than no database at all. Build sustainable models for e-Government: To build sustainable models for e-Government, three processes have to be outsourced: those involving personnel training, hardware and software maintenance and updating of databases. Also, steps have to be taken so e-Government projects that get started through external funds are internalized within the budget of the government so that these projects do not meet sad deaths after external funding stops. Transfer issue: Transfer of government officials is an inherent part of the government process. While taking decisions about such transfer, the level of IT training of the candidate for transfer should be taken into account. Appoint CIO: To create ownership and accountability structure for e-Government projects, an interested mid-to-high level government official in a particular office should be appointed as CIO (Chief Information Officer) of that office. It will be the responsibility of the CIO to make plans for integration of ICT into the activities of that office and promote e-Government. In many Asian countries such as Thailand, Japan and Malaysia, the concept of CIO in government has been internalized and their responsibilities made mandatory. They go through a different kind of more rigorous IT training. In Japan, Inter-Ministerial CIO Council was formed, which meets regularly to discuss issues of e-Government implementation. In Thailand also, CIOs are required to meet regularly and a regular CIO award is given by the government gets much highlight in the media. Standardization for use of Bangla: To ease the use of Bangla in electronic formats, there should be some kind of standardization of fonts that maintain international UNICODE standards. Since communication and official documents in the government are still in Bangla, this standardization is a very urgent need without which integration of ICTs with government activities will face major hurdles. Consider issues of interoperability and interconnectivity: Another important issue for consideration is maintaining open standards in building IT systems so that they can be integrated with IT systems in other government offices. Use of open source technologies can be an important step in this respect. 5.2 Recommendations for G2B and G2C Build ICT infrastructure across the nation: Investment should be made to build ICT infrastructure throughout the nation. The international submarine cable project should be expedited as well as the Internet Exchange (IX) establishment project. The following are some of JICA’s recommendations in building infrastructure: The following are the existing infrastructures that can be used for broadband transmission—of optical fiber cable transmission: – OPGW (OPtical fiber Grounding Wire) of high tension power line: PDB has advanced installation of OPGW considering its usefulness as resource. Sooner or later, PDB with PGCB intends to realize an entire 48-core optical fiber network throughout the country. This OPGW network is very valuable as a national ICT resource. – Optical fiber cable of BR: BR has installed optical fiber cables along their railways. All the optical fiber cable network, however, have exclusively used in the mobile telephone network by GrameenPhone in accordance with the Contract. Almost all the number of cores are two and those seem not to be always in good condition, as far as we were learned. – Highway: According to Highway & Road Department, there has not exist any plan under which duct installation is considered for optical fiber cable from planning stage. The ducts were always constructed upon the request of BTTB, separately from road construction. – Gas Pipelines: According to GTCL, there are no optical fiber cables in its Right of Way (RoW). GTCL is aware of how best to use the RoW today. The company is desirous to install some optical fiber cables along their pipe lines when newly planned. Create online access points at public places: Online access points should be made from public places such as post offices so that anyone can get access to the Internet at low, subsidized cost. This is a model that is popular in almost all countries. Without such facilities, G2C and G2B services may not be able to reach target population easily. Extend connectivity outside cities: Steps have to be taken to allow easy Internet access from outside cities. Incentives will have to be given to ISPs to locate outside cities. Organize public awareness programs on IT: Public awareness programs should be arranged highlighting the relevance of IT in daily life. It should be emphasized that IT and computerization is not only about typing documents in the computer. The cultural inhibition to using computers must be overcome. 5.3 General Recommendations for e-Governance: Push for a comprehensive regulatory framework for e-Governance: There is an urgent need for a comprehensive regulatory/legal framework for realization of e-Governance. Some of the issues to be included in the framework are IPR laws to protect intellectual property, laws for acceptance of documents in electronic format (such as downloaded documents), laws against cyber-terrorism to protect against unauthorized hacking, laws to enable electronic authentication. Also needed is an Electronic Certification Authority designated by the government which should have the authority to provide electronic certification to organization and individuals. Create and retain adequate IT human resource: There needs to be a well-planned program to create a greater number of IT human resource in the country. The number of seats in the computer science and engineering departments of universities needs to be increased. Steps need to be taken to monitor the quality of training institutes. Government certification programs to test individuals need to be arranged for maintaining quality of IT-related diplomas. Efforts should also be taken to retain the massive number of IT-trained personnel Bangladesh is losing each year. Invest in public IT literacy: IT literacy programs should start early in schools because it is at that tender age that students are most open to new ideas and technologies. The government should also arrange, encourage and subsidize IT vocational training to create an IT-literate society. Encourage local software companies to prepare themselves: The local software companies should take steps to become more prepared for handling government IT projects, especially in areas of project management. The software companies may also need to cooperate among themselves to jointly handle large-scale e-Government projects. Individual software companies in Bangladesh mostly do not have the human resource capacity to handle government projects. The government should take steps to give public projects to software companies so that they gain needed experience for larger projects. Invest in reliable supply of electricity: Steps need to be taken to explore alternative sources of power or alternative means of power generation. Different developing countries are experimenting with solar power, bicycle-generated power etc. Bangladesh should also take similar steps. Deregulation of ISP and telephony service providers: The ISP and telephone service provision must be deregulated to allow for greater competition and lower price. Also, VoIP is a popular means of communicating with the outside world, but it is still illegal under current regulations. VoIP should be made legal as soon as possible to allow greater use of computers for everyday activities of people and generate people’s interest in ICTs. 5.4 e-Government Implementation Strategy The following steps should be taken for electronic government in Bangladesh: a. Identify functional areas in all Ministry/Division/Department and Corporations most necessary to be taken up and also those, which are easily assessable to EG. b. Make an inventory of existing applications/packages in use by different Ministry/Division/Department and Corporations facilitating EG. c. Initiate moves to encourage Ministry/Division/Department and Corporations to develop and link already existing data bases to the public domain. d. Initiate and develop data warehouse in all Ministry/Division/Department and Corporations to facilitate the process of EG. e. Create awareness and assist in database building activities in all Government/semi Government organization. f. Initiate and develop pilot projects in application that currently not available so as to extend full benefit of IT (say for an example EG in the Planning Division, ERD, Bureau of Statistics, Finance Division, Ministry of Science & Technology, IMED, and the LGED). g. Encourage the Government to prescribe knowledge of computers as an essential qualification for recruitment/promotion of various levels. h. Develop and integrate suitable models in areas of EG i. To launch and ensure wide participation of existing staff in computer literacy programmes. j. Develop system for seamless transfer of information between offices dealing with public administration of the Government. k. Set up and facilitate specific communication network for the government sectors. l. Assist Government in identification and implementation of suitable hardware and software packages for electronic governance. m. Establish links worldwide with institutions engaged in similar activities so as to optimize the benefits by building sustaining platform for interchange of ideas and experiences. n. Initiate amendments in Government Acts, Rules and Regulations under various Departments and Ministries to put in place IT and web enabled citizen services. o. Establish organizations for advising Government regarding development of strategies for use of Information Technology by Government so that latest technologies and best practices are harnessed. This could take the form of National Electronics Government Project/Unit/ (NEGP)/(NEGU) on the lines of Central Information Technology Unit (CITU) set up in UK in Nov., 1995. p. Develop special pilot projects on Paperless Government-On-Line through use of web and internet technology. q. Build convergence into connected Services Delivery Programmes relating to the common citizen. r. Develop commercial and governmental systems for issuing and managing digital signatures/electronic signatures smart cards. s. Identify measures for suitable protection of data during filling up, transmission and against alterations by using combination of security measures. t. Launch the 25% target of Electronically Governance widely and enabled suitable milestones and makers to monitor them. u. Establish Industry Consultative Committees (ICC), Citizen Consultative Committees (CCC) and Ministries Consultative Committees (MCC) to provide a forum to various users and implementation groups and organizations to contribute towards the 25% goal and beyond. These committees could discuss i. Exchange of information and views on the direction of the Governments IT strategy, opportunities for a whole of Government approach, and emerging trends in the industry. ii. Identify key issues associated with electronic service delivery, including generic areas for possible partnership working which can be considered by CITU in conjunction with departments and agencies iii. Discuss the possible strategic and policy framework, which would guide Government to develop service delivery in an integrated manner. v. Development of existing Facilitation Centers already established in various departments as One Stop Shop (OSS) giving One Click (OCL) to all information required by the citizen through convergent use of linking, programme & multiple data entry mechanism. w. Coordinate activities of Information Technology-Citizen Interface set up by the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development, as also the High Powered Committee on Improving Efficiency in Government through use of IT under the Chairmanship of Principal Secretary or Cabinet Secretary. x. Establish Government Information Services (GIS) and facilitate the setting up of National Information Infrastructure incorporating links with GlS on one hand and State Information Infrastructure, District Information Infrastructure, Local Information Infrastructure (LII) and other networking systems on the other, so as to enable Seamless transfer of information multilaterally between users and provides of information and services. y. Enable ministries in Government of Bangladesh to formulate scheme for selected activities and possible suitable resources facilitation to encourage the same. z. Develop harmonious cyber laws/regulatory framework as quickly as possible.

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